Who Is Black? One Nation’s Definition

Posted in Books, Census/Demographics, History, Media Archive, Monographs, Politics/Public Policy, Social Science, United States on 2009-10-17 21:04Z by Steven

Who Is Black? One Nation’s Definition

Penn State Press
2001 (Originally published in 1992)
232 pages
6 x 9
ISBN 978-0-271-02172-0

F. James Davis, Professor Emeritus of Sociology
Illinois State University

Winner of the 1992 Outstanding Book on the Subject of Human Rights from the Gustavus Myers Center for the Study of Human Rights in the United States.

Tenth Anniversary Edition

Reprinted many times since its first publication in 1991, Who Is Black? has become a staple in college classrooms throughout the United States, helping students understand this nation’s history of miscegenation and the role that the “one-drop rule” has played in it. In this special anniversary edition, the author brings the story up to date in an epilogue. There he highlights some revealing responses to Who Is Black? and examines recent challenges to the one-drop rule, including the multiracial identity movement and a significant change in the census classification of racial and ethnic groups.

Table of Contents

    • The One-Drop Rule Defined
    • Black Leaders, But Predominantly White
    • Plessy, Phipps, and Other Challenges in Courts
    • Census Enumeration of Blacks
    • Uniqueness of the One-Drop Rule
    • Racial Classification and Miscegenation
    • Racist Beliefs About Miscegenation
    • The Judge Brady Paradox
    • Miscegenation in Africa and Europe
    • Race vs. Beliefs About Race
    • Early Miscegenation in the Upper South: The Rule Emerges
    • South Carolina and Louisiana: A Different Rule
    • Miscegenation on Black Belt Plantations
    • Reconstruction and the One-Drop Rule
    • The Status of Free Mulattoes, North and South
    • The Emergence and Spread of the One-Drop Rule
    • Creation of the Jim Crow System
    • The One-Drop Rule Under Jim Crow
    • Effects of the Black Renaissance of the 1920s
    • The Rule and Myrdal’s Rank Order of Discriminations
    • Sexual Norms and the Rule: Jim Crow vs. Apartheid
    • Effects of The Fall of Jim Crow
    • De Facto Segregation and Miscegenation
    • Miscegenation Since the 1960s
    • Development of the One-Drop Rule in the Twentieth Century
    • Racial Hybrid Status Lower Than Both Parents Groups
    • Status Higher Than Either Parent Group
    • In-Between Status: South Africa and Others
    • Highly Variable Class Status: Latin America
    • Two Variants in the Caribbean
    • Equality for the Racially Mixed in Hawaii
    • Same Status as the Subordinate Group: The One-Drop Rule
    • Status of an Assimilating Minority
    • Contrasting Socially Constructed Rules
    • Alex Haley, Lillian Smith, and Others
    • Transracial Adoptions and the One-Drop Rule
    • Rejecton of the Rule: Garvey, American Indians, and Others
    • Black Acceptance: Reasons and Implications
    • The Death of Walter White’s Father and Other Traumas
    • Collective Anxieties About Racial Identity: Some Cases
    • Personal Identity: Seven Modes of Adjustment
    • Lena Home’s Struggles with Her Racial Identity
    • Problems of Administering the One-Drop Rule
    • Misperceptions of the Racial Identity of South Asians, Arabs, and Others
    • Sampling Errors in Studying American Blacks
    • Blockage of Full Assimilation of Blacks
    • Costs of the One-Drop Rule
    • A Massive Distortion? A Monstrous Myth?
    • Clues for Change in Deviations from the Rule
    • Clues for Change in Costs of the Rule
    • Possible Direction: Which Alternative?
    • Prospects for the Future
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Notes of a White Black Woman: Race, Color, Community

Posted in Autobiography, Books, Law, Media Archive, Monographs, Social Science, United States, Women on 2009-10-17 20:36Z by Steven

Notes of a White Black Woman: Race, Color, Community

Penn State Press
206 pages
6 x 9
cloth: ISBN 978-0-271-01430-2
paper: ISBN 978-0-271-02124-9

Judy Scales-Trent, Floyd H. & Hilda L. Hurst Faculty Scholar, Professor Emerita
State Univerisity of New York at Buffalo Law School

“I remember one time in particular, after the cab I was in crashed into the car in front, then backed into the one behind. A policeman stopped to help.  As he was taking down my name and address, I noticed that he had checked the ‘white’ box.  ‘Officer,’ I said politely, ‘you made an error on your form. I am not white. I am black.’ He gave me a long, bored look, decided not to discuss it, and said, ‘Sure, lady.  If you say so.’ If I say so? If I say so!  As if it were my idea!  I was enraged at his assumption that all of this—the categories, the racial purity laws, the lives that are stomped, mangled, ruined because of those categories and those laws ïwas based on my say-so.  If I said so, we would do away with all of it ïthe sickness and fear, the need to classify as a way to control, the need to make some appear smaller so that others can appear larger. ‘If I say so’ indeed.”

While the “one-drop rule” in the United States dictates that people with any African ancestry are black, many black Americans have white skin.  Notes of a White Black Woman is one woman’s attempt to describe what it is like to be a “white” black woman and to live simultaneously inside and outside of both white and black communities.

Law professor Judy Scales-Trent begins by describing how our racial purity laws have operated over the past four hundred years.  Then, in a series of autobiographical essays, she addresses how race and color interact in relationships between men and women, within families, and in the larger community.  Scales-Trent ultimately explores the question of what we really mean by “race” in this country, once it is clear that race is not a tangible reality as reflected through color.

Scales-Trent uses autobiography both as a way to describe these issues and to develop a theory of the social construction of race.  She explores how race and color intertwine through black and white families and across generations; how members of both black and white communities work to control group membership; and what happens to relations between black men and women when thelayer of color is placed over the already difficult layer of race.  She addresses how one can tell–and whether one can tell–who, indeed, is “black” or “white.”  Scales-Trent also celebrates the richness of her bicultural heritage and shows how she has revised her teaching methods to provide her law students with a multicultural education.

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The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity in the United States (2nd Edition)

Posted in Anthologies, Anthropology, Books, Census/Demographics, Law, Media Archive, Politics/Public Policy, Social Science, United States on 2009-10-17 19:19Z by Steven

The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity in the United States (2nd Edition)

Prentice Hall
525 pages
Paperback ISBN-10: 0130283231; ISBN-13:  9780130283238

Edited By:

Joan Ferrante
Northern Kentucky University

Prince Brown, Jr.
Northern Kentucky University

For undergraduate courses in race and ethnic relations.

This groundbreaking collection of classic and cutting edge sociological research gives special attention to the social construction of race and ethnicity in the United States. It offers an in-depth and eye-opening analysis of (a) the power of racial classification to shape our understanding of race and race relations, (b) the way in which the system came into being and remains, and (c) the real consequences this system has on life chances.

Patricia Riley, Adventures of an Indian Princess. Timothy Egan, Expelled in 1877, Indian Tribe is Now Wanted as a Resource. Lawrence Otis Graham, Black Man with a Nose Job. Garrett Hongo, Culture Wars in Asian America. Andrea Kim, Born and Raised in Hawaii, But Not Hawaiian. Yolanda Adams, Don’t Want to Be Black Anymore. Mitzi Uehara-Carter, On Being Blackanese. Joan Ferrante, Six Case Studies. Dympna Ugwu-Oju, What Will My Mother Say. Paul Andrew Dawkins, Apologizing for Being a Black Male. Judy Scales-Trent, Choosing Up Sides. Marilyn Halter, Identity Matters: The Immigrant Children. Sarah Van’t Hul, How It Was for Me. Joseph Tovares, Mojado Like Me. Yuri Kochiyama, Then Came the War.

Paul Knepper, Historical Origins of the Prohibition of Multiracial Legal Identity in the State and the Nation. Federal Statistical Directive No. 15 THE U.S. OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET, OMB’s Decisions: Revisions to Federal Statistical Directive. Prince Brown, Jr., Biology and the Social Construction of the “Race” Concept. Ian F. Haney Lopez, The Mean Streets of Social Race. Jack D. Forbes, “Indian” and “Black” as Radically Different Categories. Michael Granberry, A Tribe’s Battle for Its Identity. Madison Hemings, The Memoirs of Madison Hemings. Ariela J. Gross, Litigating Whiteness. Laura L. Lovett, Invoking Ancestors. Angelo N. Ancheta, Race Relations in Black and White . Time Magazine, How to Tell Your Friends From the Japs.

The U.S. Bureau of the Census, Questions Related to Ethnicity. Luis Angel Toro, Directive No. 15 and Self-Identification. Himilce Novas, What’s in a Name? Julie E. Sprott, The Mingling of Alaska Natives with “Foreigners”: A Brief Historical Overview. Mary C. Waters, Choosing an Ancestry. David Steven Cohen, Reflections on American Ethnicity. Yen Le Espiritu, Theories of Ethnicity. Rudolph J. Vecoli, Are Italian-Americans Just White Folk? Peter D. Salins, Americans United by Myths.

Judy Scales-Trent, On Being Like a Mule. Article XIX, Chinese, Constitution of the State of California, 1872; Repealed, November 4, 1952, State of California. Howard Zinn, Persons of Mean and Vile Condition. Stephen Jay Gould, Science and Jewish Immigration. J. A. Rogers, Remarks on the First Two Volumes of Sex and Race. Prince Brown, Jr., Why “Race” Makes No Scientific Sense: The Case of Africans and Native Americans. Albert Jacquard, Science, Pseudo-science and Racism. Charles A Gallagher, White Reconstruction in the University. Trina Grillo and Stephanie M. Wildman, Taking Back the Center. The U.S. Supreme Court, Plessy v. Ferguson. Cheryl I. Harris, Plessy. Albert Jacquard, Declaration of Athens: Scientists Speak Out Against Racism.

Vivian J. Rohrl, The Anthropology of Race: A Study of Ways of Looking at Race. Letter from Thomas Jefferson: Virginia’s Definition of a Mulatto. Cruz Reynoso, Ethnic Diversity: Its Historical and Constitutional Roots. Erich Loewy, Making Good Again. Stephen H. Caldwell and Rebecca Popenoe, Perceptions and Misperceptions of Skin Color. Selected Discrimination Cases Handled by the U.S. Department of Justice in 1999. Nicholas Peroff, Indianess. K.C. Cole, Brain’s Use of Shortcuts Can Be A Route to Bias. Richard T. Schaefer, Talking Past One Another. Ward Churchill, Let’s Spread the “Fun” Around: The Issue of Sports Team Names and Mascots. Lawrence Otis Graham, The Rules of Passing. Anthony S. Parent and Susan Brown Wallace, Childhood and Sexual Identity Under Slavery. Patricia Hill Collins, Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection. Bruce N. Simon, White-Blindness. Robert Jensen, White Privilege Shapes the U.S. Robert Jensen, More Thoughts on Why the System of White Privilege is Wrong.

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Meeting the Needs of Multiethnic and Multiracial Children in Schools

Posted in Books, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, Teaching Resources, United States on 2009-10-17 17:20Z by Steven

Meeting the Needs of Multiethnic and Multiracial Children in Schools

Merrill an imprint of Pearson
256 pages
ISBN-10: 0205376088
ISBN-13:  9780205376087

Francis Wardle
Red Rocks Community College, Colorado

Maria I. Cruz-Janzen, Associate Professor of Multicultural Education
Florida Atlantic University

From one of the premiere experts on the subject comes this “crash course” for teachers on understanding the developmental needs of multiethnic, multicultural, and multiracial children.

This book educates teachers through the experiences of children culturally, ethnically, and racially mixed heritage. In doing so, the authors challenge even longtime multicultural experts to broaden how we think and approach multicultural education. Wardle and Cruz-Janzen push the envelope of typical awareness. They are the harbingers of questions and information in a changing climate of race and culture ripe for redress and new ways of thinking, talking, and educating.

Both of these authors bring to this topic a wealth of personal experience and academic scholarship and insight. They courageously embrace new ideas and concepts of race and culture, both nationally and globally, and provide new and exciting ways of thinking, talking, learning and educating.


  • Authors encourage the reader to critically think about diverse family constellations and individual racial and ethnic identity.
  • Different models of multiracial identity development are reviewed.
  • Focus Questions at the beginning of each chapter help give students direction.
  • A variety of tools are provided to help students critically examine their own perceptions, and to evaluate materials, curricular approaches, and instructional methods.

Author Bios

Francis Wardle first became involved in issues regarding multiethnic and multiracial children when his four-year-old daughter came to him in tears, after a peer used race as a put down. Since then he has created the Center for the Study of Biracial Children, given presentations on multiethnic and multiracial issues throughout the US and Canada, written extensively on the topic, and been quoted in newspapers, magazines, TV programs, and radio stations including NPR. Currently Dr. Wardle teaches at Red Rocks Community College and the University of Phoenix/Colorado Campus, consults for the National Head Start Migrant Program, and writes for a variety of national publications.

Marta I. Cruz-Janzen is Associate Professor of Multicultural Education at Florida Atlantic University. She received a Ph.D. in Curriculum & Instruction from the University of Denver, a Master of Arts and Master of Education in Human Development from Columbia University Teachers College, and a Bachelor of Science from Cornell University. Her dissertation, Curriculum and the Self-Concept of Biethnic and Biracial Persons received the University of Denver Phi Delta Kappa 1996-97 Dissertation of the Year Award. Marta has been a bilingual teacher and elementary school principal.

Table of Contents

  1. Multiethnic and Multiracial Children.
    • Multiethnic and Multiracial Children in Our Schools.
    • Myths and Realities.
    • Chapter Feature: Eva.
    • Diversity in the Classroom.
    • Bill of Rights for Racially Mixed People.
    • Needs of Multiethnic and Multiracial Children.
    • Development of Racial and Ethnic Identity.
    • Student Profile.
    • Supporting Multiethnic and Multiracial Children.
  2. Traditional Approaches.
    • Single Race-Ethnicity Approach.
    • Avoid Diversity by Celebration.
    • Student Profile.
    • Multicultural Education.
    • Group Membership.
    • Getting on the Same Page.
    • Approaches to Multicultural Education.
    • Banks’ Dimensions of Multicultural Education.
    • Banks’ Approaches to Multicultural Education.
    • Reforming Multicultural Education.
  3. Historical Developments.
    • Student Profile.
    • Development of a Racial System.
    • Origins of U.S. Racism.
    • Rejection of Racial Mixing.
    • Latinos.
    • Student Profile.
    • Immigration.
    • Racism and Segregation.
    • Desegregation in Education.
  4. Categorizing People.
    • Student Voices.
    • Understanding Race, Racism and Categorizing People.
    • Not Quite White: The Arab American Experience.
    • The Ethnic Category.
    • The Race Myth.
    • After the Civil War.
    • How Other Nations Categorize People.
    • The Legacy of Slaves and Slave Owners.
    • Maintaining the Color Line.
    • Today’s Multicultural and Multiethnic Children.
  5. Identify Development of Multiethnic and Multiracial Children.
    • Identity Development.
    • Identity Development Models.
    • Chart Showing the Identity Models.
    • Developmental and Ecological Model of Identity Development.
    • Student Voices.
    • Diagram of the Ecological Components of the Multiethnic/Multiracial Identity Model.
  6. Families and Communities.
    • The Multiethnic and Multiracial Family.
    • Myths and Realities.
    • Table of Age-Related Issues for Interracial and Interethnic Families.
    • Raising Healthy, Happy Interracial Children.
    • Different Family Structures.
  7. Curricular Approaches.
    • Early Childhood.
    • Student Voices.
    • Late Elementary.
    • Student Voices.
    • How to Evaluate a Textbook/Reading Book for P-12 Programs.
    • Middle School.
    • Student Voices.
    • Multicultural School Activities.
    • High School.
    • Student Voices.
    • Comments About Interracial Marriage and Multiracial Identity by Frederick Douglass and Bob Marley.
    • Hidden Curriculum.
    • Multicultural Model.
    • Anti-Bias and Ecological Model of Multicultural Education.
    • Case Study of the Anti-Bias and Ecological Model.
  8. Instructional Strategies.
    • The Impact of Standards on Instruction.
    • The Influence of the Teacher.
    • Student Voices.
    • Materials and Activities Checklist.
    • Biased Instructional Materials.
    • Culturally Authentic Bias.
    • Suggestions for Instructional Techniques.
    • Analysis of a Teaching Unit.
    • Multicultural Music and Dance.
  9. Teaching Teachers.
    • The Nature of Public Education.
    • Preparing Future Teachers.
    • Teacher Preparation Programs.
    • Student Voices.
    • Sociopolitical Construction of Multiethnic and Multiracial Persons.
    • What Teachers Must Know and Be Able to Do.
    • Twenty-Five Recommendations for Teacher Education and Educational Leadership Faculty, Pre-Service Teacher Candidates, and Participate in Teacher In-Service.
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Why Are People Different?: Multiracial Families in Picture Books and the Dialogue of Difference

Posted in Articles, Book/Video Reviews, Literary/Artistic Criticism, Media Archive on 2009-10-17 16:58Z by Steven

Why Are People Different?: Multiracial Families in Picture Books and the Dialogue of Difference

The Lion and the Unicorn
Volume 25, Number 3, September 2001
pages 412-426
E-ISSN: 1080-6563
Print ISSN: 0147-2593
DOI: 10.1353/uni.2001.0037

Karen Sands-O’Connor

The issue of race has often been contentious in children’s literature, from controversies over Twain‘s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, to Bannerman‘s Little Black Sambo, to Keats‘s The Snowy Day, to Herron’s Nappy Hair. How race is portrayed and who portrays it have been crucial for many critics. Violet J. Harris suggests this preoccupation with cultural authenticity, as she terms it, centers on “individual books and their portrayals of people of color, as well as the representation of specific aspects of their cultures such as values, customs, and family relationships” (40-41). Francis Wardle counters, “presenting the Black race and cultural group as a single, unified, world-wide entity is not only inaccurate, but denies the tremendous richness of economic, cultural, linguistic, national, political, social and religious diversity that exists in the world-wide Black community” (“Mixed-Race Unions” 200). This insistence on cultural authenticity poses even more problems when more than one culture is portrayed within a family, and it is perhaps for this reason that little has been written on the multiracial family as portrayed in literature…

Purchase the entire article here.

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