“Mixed-Blood” Indians in Southern New England

Posted in Anthropology, Audio, History, Identity Development/Psychology, Interviews, Media Archive, Native Americans/First Nation, United States, Women on 2012-04-18 03:29Z by Steven

“Mixed-Blood” Indians in Southern New England

TalkingFeather Radio
Blogtalk Radio

The historical connections of Native Americans and African people is not a topic that is often discussed in classrooms, nor is it found in elementary, middle and high school history books. The trading that went on with Africans who sailed to this continent and Indigenous people of Mexico, the islands and parts of Central America before Columbus is often overlooked. Relationships were forged by trade and by blood for hundreds of years and yet many people do not know about this rich story. Our guest on the Talking Feather is Julieanne Jennings, who is Cheroenhaka Nottaway Native American, will talk about this history as it relates to the New England Indigenous people. For more than 15 years, she has been teaching children and adults about the history and culture of the Native people in southern New England. She currently teaches a first year program liberal arts colloquium entitled “Mixed-Blood Indians in Southern New England at Eastern Connecticut State University. Jennings is the author of several books and journal articles, and has co-authored Understanding Algonquian Indian Words and A Cultural History of the Native People of Southern New England. In 2009, she received Congressional Recognition from the United States Senate from Rhode Island’s Women of the Year Award event for cultural enrichment. Join us in this dialogue as we dispel the myths and get to the truth.

Download the episode here.

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Fading Roles of Fictive Kinship: Mixed-Blood Racial Isolation and United States Indian Policy in the Lower Missouri River Basin, 1790-1830

Posted in Dissertations, History, Media Archive, Native Americans/First Nation, Politics/Public Policy, United States on 2012-04-18 01:36Z by Steven

Fading Roles of Fictive Kinship: Mixed-Blood Racial Isolation and United States Indian Policy in the Lower Missouri River Basin, 1790-1830

Kansas State University, Manhattan
124 pages

Zachary Charles Isenhower

A THESIS submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF ARTS Department of History College of Arts and Sciences

On June 3, 1825, William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and eleven representatives of the “Kanzas” nation signed a treaty ceding their lands to the United States. The first to sign was “Nom-pa-wa-rah,” the overall Kansa leader, better known as White Plume. His participation illustrated the racial chasm that had opened between Native- and Anglo- American worlds. The treaty was designed to ease pressures of proximity in Missouri and relocate multiple nations West of the Mississippi, where they believed they would finally be beyond the American lust for land.

White Plume knew different. Through experience with U.S. Indian policy, he understood that land cessions only restarted a cycle of events culminating in more land cessions. His identity as a mixed-blood, by virtue of the Indian-white ancestry of many of his family, opened opportunities for that experience. Thus, he attempted in 1825 to use U.S. laws and relationships with officials such as William Clark to protect the future of the Kansa. The treaty was a cession of land to satisfy conflicts, but also a guarantee of reserved land, and significantly, of a “halfbreed” tract for mixed-blood members of the Kansa Nation.

Mixed-blood go-betweens stood for a final few moments astride a widening chasm between Anglo-American and native worlds. It was a space that less than a century before offered numerous opportunities for mixed-blood people to thrive as intermediaries, brokers, traders, and diplomats. They appeared, albeit subtly, in interactions wherever white and Native worlds overlapped. As American Indians lost their economic viability and eventually their land, that overlap disappeared. White Plume’s negotiation of a reserve for his descendants is telling of a group left without a place. In bridging the two worlds, mixed-bloods became a group that by the mid-nineteenth century was defined as “other” by Anglo-American and Indians alike. This study is the first to track these evolving racial constructs and roles over both time and place. Previous studies have examined mixed-blood roles, but their identity is portrayed as static. This study contends that their roles changed with the proximity and viability of full-blood communities with which white officials had to negotiate.

Table of Contents

  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Acknowledgements
  • Dedication
  • Chapter 1 – A Supporting Cast: Mixed-Blood Indians in the Historical Narrative of the Frontier
    • Introduction
    • A Frontier From Each Side
    • Negotiated Social Norms
    • An Evolution of Perception
  • Chapter 2 – Thriving In-Between: Mixed-Blood Indians Before 1790
    • Nous sommes touts Sauvages: White and Indian in the “Middle Ground”
    • Domino Theory: Trade, Allies, and Foreign Policy
    • “Probably Thou Are Not a Chief:” The United States Enters as a Frontier Power
  • Chapter 3 – Racialization and Reduced Leverage: Perceptions and Realities of the Frontier in the Jeffersonian Vision
    • Fathers and Brothers: Mixed-Blood Indians and the Genesis of Assimilationist Policy
    • Hospitable Savages
  • Chapter 4 – A Chasm Opens: Land Cession and the Loss of Place After the Fur Trade
    • “Ardent Spirits:” Decline of the Fur Trade, Adaptation, and the Deterioration of “Full-Blood” Communities
    • “The Bad Feeling That Now Exists:” Land Cession and a Perception of Betrayal
    • Conclusion
  • Bibliography

Read the entire dissertation here.

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