Blackness and Blood: Interpreting African American Identity

Posted in Articles, Media Archive, Philosophy, United States on 2015-05-25 01:52Z by Steven

Blackness and Blood: Interpreting African American Identity

Philosophy & Public Affairs
Volume 32, Issue 2 (April 2004)
pages 171-192
DOI: 10.1111/j.1088-4963.2004.00010.x

Lionel K. McPherson, Associate Professor of Philosophy
Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

Tommie Shelby, Caldwell Titcomb Professor of African and African American Studies and of Philosophy
Harvard University

In his Tanner Lectures, ‚ÄúThe State and the Shaping of Identity,‚ÄĚ Kwame¬†Anthony Appiah defends a version of liberalism that would give the¬†state a substantial role in deliberately sustaining, reshaping, and even¬†creating the social identities of its citizens‚ÄĒour identities as African¬†American, women, Hispanic, gay, Jewish, and the like. He calls this¬†role ‚Äúsoul-making,‚ÄĚ which is ‚Äúthe political project of intervening in¬†the process of interpretation through which each citizen develops an¬†identity with the aim of increasing her chances of living an ethically¬†successful life.‚ÄĚ

Appiah believes that an ethically successful life is integral to an objectively¬†good life. ‚ÄúA life has gone well,‚ÄĚ he tells us, ‚Äúif a person has mostly¬†done for others what she owed them (and thus is morally successful) and¬†has succeeded in creating things of significance and in fulfilling her¬†ambitions (and is thus ethically successful).‚ÄĚ He supports a liberal¬†democratic, soul-making state that not only would seek to protect¬†persons from harming themselves but also would seek to promote for¬†citizens the kinds of lives that are good or valuable, perhaps even if these¬†citizens failed to recognize how such governmental interventions would¬†contribute to their objective well-being.

According to Appiah, our social identities can themselves be a major¬†obstacle to our pursuit of an ethically successful life. This is likely to¬†happen when a social identity is incoherent, when it has ‚Äúa set of norms¬†associated with it, such that, in the actual world, attempting to conform¬†to some subset of those norms undermines one‚Äôs capacity to conform to¬†others.‚ÄĚ He believes that many existing social identities are incoherent¬†in just this way. Further, he maintains that people who suffer from an¬†incoherent social identity should want to be suitably informed about its¬†incoherence, because social identities are among the tools with which¬†we shape and give meaning to our lives. ‚ÄúThe incoherence of a social¬†identity,‚ÄĚ he argues, ‚Äúcan lead to incoherence in individual identities: to¬†someone‚Äôs having an identity that generates projects and ambitions that¬†undermine one another.‚ÄĚ In previous writings Appiah advocated tolerance,¬†not state soul-making, for confused or incoherent social identities.¬†But here he argues that, when ordinary dissemination of the¬†relevant facts fails to reform faulty social identities, it may be legitimate¬†for the state to intervene in order to increase the chances that citizens¬†will attain their autonomous ethical aims…

…The case that Appiah makes to demonstrate the incoherence of African¬†American racial identity proceeds as follows. He argues that the¬†common-sense criteria for ascribing African American racial identity are¬†inconsistent with the facts. This argument rests on the claim that many¬†Americans, including most African Americans, accept the so-called one-drop¬†rule for black racial designation: a person is black if and only if she¬†has at least one traceable black ancestor. The rule has the peculiar consequence that some African Americans may be physically indistinguishable¬†from whites….

…In trying to make sense of African American attitudes about their¬†racial identity and its relation to their ethical aims, it may be more revealing¬†to work from observed social practices to conceptual commitments,¬†rather than the other way around. As a thought experiment, imagine a¬†group of persons who regard themselves as belonging to the same race¬†and who live within a larger multiracial society. Further suppose that¬†within this racial community, call it the ‚Äúblack nation,‚ÄĚ racial essentialism¬†is both widely accepted and treated as practically important.¬†We would expect the lives of such a people to be, in some significant¬†respects, structured around this shared belief and joint practical¬†concern. Within the black nation there would be sharply defined, public¬†criteria for racial identity. Community leaders would seek to regulate¬†carefully the criteria for proper racial ascription. Using these criteria,¬†members of the community would closely track the racial lineage‚ÄĒfor¬†instance, at birth and marriage‚ÄĒof fellow members. There would probably¬†be norms against both interracial marriage and interracial sex,¬†given the latter‚Äôs propensity to produce hybrid offspring. Members of¬†the black nation would not only contest any assertion or suggestion that blacks are naturally inferior but also would insist on the recognition of¬†the natural, i.e., biologically based, virtues of blackness. There would¬†be commercial enterprises whose business consisted in researching the¬†racial ancestry of prospective political leaders, spouses, and in-laws.¬†Terms such as ‚Äúmulatto,‚ÄĚ ‚Äúquadroon,‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúoctoroon‚ÄĚ (or their functional¬†equivalents) would be the standard nomenclature for referring to interracial¬†progeny, rather than the more vague terms ‚Äúmixed race‚ÄĚ and¬†‚Äúmultiracial‚ÄĚ that now have some currency; and these designations¬†would not be understood as falling under the racial category ‚Äúblack,‚ÄĚ as¬†this would be a misnomer. Dissemination of the facts about the prevalence¬†of passing and interracial reproduction would be cause for alarm,¬†not merely surprise, within the black nation…

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Does ‚ÄėRace‚Äô Have a Future?

Posted in Articles, Media Archive, Philosophy, Politics/Public Policy on 2012-03-04 00:19Z by Steven

Does ‚ÄėRace‚Äô Have a Future?

Philosophy & Public Affairs
Volume 35, Issue 4 (Fall 2007)
pages 293‚Äď317
DOI: 10.1111/j.1088-4963.2007.00115.x

Philip Kitcher, John Dewey Professor of Philosophy
Columbia University

There are simple and powerful arguments against the biological reality of race. Although the phenotypic characteristics, the manifest features that have traditionally been used to divide our species into races, are salient for us, they are superficial, indicating nothing about important differences in psychological traits or genetic conditions that constitute some racial essence. Throughout history, allegations of deep differences in temperament and capacity, claims grounded in no evidence, have done incalculable harm. Contemporary genetic studies of human populations have revealed that there are no alleles distinctive of this race or of that, and, although a few researchers like J. Philippe Rushton‚ÄĒ”ogre naturalists,” as Ian Hacking aptly dubs them‚ÄĒcontinue to seek such simple genetic differences, there is a widespread consensus among anthropologists that races are not “biologically real.”

If you have a particular view of natural kinds, the line of reasoning I have just sketched will appear overwhelming. Suppose you believe that natural kinds are distinguished by some special underlying feature that explains the behavior of members of the kind- like atomic number, for example, in the case of the elements-then you will infer directly from the absence of special genetic or chromosomal markers of race to the biological insignificance of racial divisions. But there is a serious mistake here. The essentialist/explanationist approaches to natural kinds that have dominated much philosophical discussion in past decades have always been woefully inadequate as accounts of biological kinds. Indeed, anyone familiar with the writings of two of the greatest evolutionary biologists of the last century, Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ernst Mayr, can only wonder at philosophical insistence on the idea that natural kinds have essences. As Dobzhansky and Mayr tirelessly pointed out, biological taxa are not demarcated by essential differences; in general, there is no analogue of atomic number, no genetic feature, say, that separates one species of mosquito or mushroom from another; there are occasional exceptions, cases in which species of lizards are formed by hybridization or species of grasses result from doubling, or tripling, of chromosomes, but these are relatively rare.

Many of the premises from which eliminativists about race begin are correct, and important enough to repeat, again and again: there are no genes distinctive of the groups we call races, no biological markers of psychological or behavioral differences. In their studies of nonhuman organisms, however, biologists typically do not appeal to distinctive genes in their demarcation of taxa. Once this fact is appreciated, the question of race as a biological category should be recast. Is there a biological basis for dividing species into smaller units, and does appeal to this basis generate a division of our own species into races?…

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