The Fictive Flapper: A Way of Reading Race and Female Desire in the Novels of Larsen, Hurst, Hurston and Cather

Posted in Dissertations, Literary/Artistic Criticism, Media Archive, Women on 2013-02-06 05:26Z by Steven

The Fictive Flapper: A Way of Reading Race and Female Desire in the Novels of Larsen, Hurst, Hurston and Cather

University of Maryland, College Park
2004
391 pages

Traci B. Abbott, Lecturer, English and Media Studies
Bentley University, Waltham, Massachusetts

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

This study seeks to reevaluate the 1920s icon of assertive female sexuality, the flapper, as represented in the novels of four women writers. Although cultural images often designate, by their very construction, normal and alteritous social categories, I argue that the flapper’s presence and popularity encourage rather than restrict this autonomy for even those female populations she appears to reject, notably lower-class women, nonwhite women, and homosexuals. Specifically, the flapper was predicated upon the cultural practices and beliefs of many of the very groups she was designed to exclude, and therefore her presence attests to the reality of these women’s experiences. Moreover, her emphasis on the liberating potential of sexual autonomy could not be contained within her strictly defined parameters in part because of her success in outlining this potential. Each chapter then focuses upon images of black and white female sexuality in the novels, chosen for their attention to female sexual autonomy within and beyond the flapper’s boundaries as well as the author’s exclusion from the flapper’s parameters.  Nella Larsen’s Passing suggests that the fluidity of female sexual desire cannot be contained within strict dichotomies of race, class, or sexual orientation, and women can manipulate and perhaps even transcend such boundaries. Fannie Hurst’s Imitation of Life offers a critique of the flapper’s excessive emphasis on sexual desirability as defined by conspicuous consumption, maintaining that lower-class white and black women can and should have access to sexual autonomy, while Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston similarly questions the denigration of working-class and non-white women in this model with her affirming view of Janie Woods, but also complicates the cultural presumption that any woman can find autonomy within a heterosexual relationship if such relationships are still defined by conventional notions of gender power. Finally, Willa Cather’s last novel, Sapphira and the Slave Girl, contends modern black and white women have the right to control their own sexual needs within an unusual antebellum setting. Thus, all of these novel provide other models of sexual autonomy besides the white, middle-class, heterosexual flapper while harnessing the flapper’s affirming and popular imagery.

Read the entire dissertation here.

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Psychology Study: Is This You? Please Join Us!

Posted in Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, United States, Wanted/Research Requests/Call for Papers on 2012-12-11 05:03Z by Steven

Psychology Study: Is This You? Please Join Us!

University of Maryland, College Park
Psychology Department
Post Date: 2012-12-11

If you have 1 self-identified Black parent and 1 self-identified White parent, and are over the age of 18, we invite you to volunteer to be a part of our research.

  • Earn SONA Course Credit or $10 in exchange for an hour of your time.
  • Your personal experience can help increase research on an understudied population.
  • You will be asked to reflect on personal experiences while blood pressure and heart rate measures are taken

For more information or to sign up to volunteer, please contact the following e-mail address: MFresearchstudy@gmail.com.

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FYS 102N – Exploring Mixed Identities

Posted in Course Offerings, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, United States on 2012-11-24 20:33Z by Steven

FYS 102N – Exploring Mixed Identities

University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Honors College
Summer 2012

Jessica Guzman-Rea

The aim of this course is to move beyond prevalent monoracial discourses by examining identities and experiences from a mixed race/mixed ethnicity perspective. This course explores many topics such as the history of racialization, processes of othering, acceptance and the politics of claiming, the role of education in racial formation (and vice versa), interracial dating, white and non-white mixed identities, transnational and transracial adoptions, and hybridity. This course will be interactive and discussion based.

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Cultural Reconstruction: Nation, Race, and the Invention of the American Magazine, 1830-1915

Posted in Communications/Media Studies, Dissertations, History, Literary/Artistic Criticism, Media Archive, United States on 2012-05-02 02:54Z by Steven

Cultural Reconstruction: Nation, Race, and the Invention of the American Magazine, 1830-1915

University of Maryland
2003-12-19
504 pages

Reynolds J. Scott-Childress, Assistant Professor of History
New Paltz, State University of New York

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Cultural Reconstruction asks: How did the U.S. develop a national culture simultaneously unified and fractured by race? The little-examined history of American magazines offers a vital clue. The dissertation’s first part demonstrates how post-Jacksonian American culturists, deeply disturbed by the divisive partisanship of “male” politics, turned to the “female” culture of sentimentality with the hope of creating a coherent and inclusive nation. These culturists believed a nationally circulating magazine would be the medium of that culture. This belief derived from the wide success of the penny press revolution of the 1830s. Cutting against the traditional reading of the penny press, Cultural Reconstruction claims that newspapers were a major proponent of sentimentality but were barred from creating a national audience by their intense local appeal. Antebellum magazinists, from Edgar Allen Poe to James Russell Lowell, attempted to adapt the sentimental worldview of the penny press to a national audience, but were frustrated by a series of cultural rifts expressed chiefly in gendered terms. Part two of the dissertation examines how the post-Civil War magazine furthered the project of sentimentality and became the leading medium of national culture. Responding to the 1870s collapse of Political Reconstruction, editors such as Richard Watson Gilder at the Century employed a series of innovative aesthetic strategiesgreater realism, local color, and regional dialect believing they were creating a cultural panorama of American life. But this project of reconstruction was riven by two fundamentally conflicting visions of American identity: the regional versus the racial. The dissertation explores correspondence between Northern magazinists and white and black Southern authors (George Washington Cable, Charles Chesnutt, Paul Laurence Dunbar, and Thomas Nelson Page) to reveal how race won out: Northern editors helped invent and popularize “Southern” memories of the Old South and the Civil War. In the process, the magazines nationalized white Southern conceptions of racial separation and prepared the way for the explosive nationwide reaction to the 1915 film The Birth of a Nation. Cultural Reconstruction shows how twentieth-century American national unity was paradoxically bound up in racial division.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction. Forgetting the Magazine: The Birth of a National Culture
  • Part I The Rise of Sentimental Public Culture
    • 1. The Fall of the Millennial Nation: The Failure of the Atlantic Cable and the Coming of the Civil War
    • 2. Printing Urban Society: The Social Imagination and the Rise of the Daily Newspaper
    • 3. The Whole Tendency of the Age Is Magazineward: The Post-Jacksonian Magazine and National Culture
  • Part II Cultural Reconstruction: The American Magazine
    • 4. Competing for Culture: The Rise of the General Magazine
    • 5. The Evolution of Magazine Culture: Sentimentality, Class, and the Editors of Scribner’s:
    • 6. The Genre of Sentimental Realism: The Thematics, Stylistics, and Form of the Postbellum Magazine
    • 7. Cultural Reconstruction: National Unity and Racial Division in the American Magazine
    • 8. From Local Color to Racial Color: The Century and African American Authors
    • 9. A Hazard of New Cultures
  • Bibliography

Read the entire dissertation here.

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FYS 102N: Exploring Mixed Identities

Posted in Course Offerings, Media Archive, United States on 2012-01-07 01:56Z by Steven

FYS 102N: Exploring Mixed Identities

University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Fall 2011

The aim of this course is to move beyond prevalent monoracial discourses by examining identities and experiences from a mixed race/mixed ethnicity perspective. This course explores many topics such as the history of racialization, processes of othering, acceptance and the politics of claiming, the role of education in racial formation (and vice versa), interracial dating, white and non-white mixed identities, transnational and transracial adoptions, and hybridity. This course will be interactive and discussion based.

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Black? White? Asian? More Young Americans Choose All of the Above

Posted in Articles, Barack Obama, Campus Life, Census/Demographics, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, Social Science, United States on 2011-01-30 04:36Z by Steven

Black? White? Asian? More Young Americans Choose All of the Above

The New York Times
2011-01-29

Susan Saulny, National Correspondent

Race Remixed: A New Sense of Identity. Articles in this series will explore the growing number of mixed-race Americans.

COLLEGE PARK, Md.—In another time or place, the game of “What Are You?” that was played one night last fall at the University of Maryland might have been mean, or menacing: Laura Wood’s peers were picking apart her every feature in an effort to guess her race.

“How many mixtures do you have?” one young man asked above the chatter of about 50 students. With her tan skin and curly brown hair, Ms. Wood’s ancestry could have spanned the globe.

“I’m mixed with two things,” she said politely.

“Are you mulatto?” asked Paul Skym, another student, using a word once tinged with shame that is enjoying a comeback in some young circles. When Ms. Wood confirmed that she is indeed black and white, Mr. Skym, who is Asian and white, boasted, “Now that’s what I’m talking about!” in affirmation of their mutual mixed lineage.

Then the group of friends—formally, the Multiracial and Biracial Student Association—erupted into laughter and cheers, a routine show of their mixed-race pride.

The crop of students moving through college right now includes the largest group of mixed-race people ever to come of age in the United States, and they are only the vanguard: the country is in the midst of a demographic shift driven by immigration and intermarriage…

…No one knows quite how the growth of the multiracial population will change the country. Optimists say the blending of the races is a step toward transcending race, to a place where America is free of bigotry, prejudice and programs like affirmative action.

Pessimists say that a more powerful multiracial movement will lead to more stratification and come at the expense of the number and influence of other minority groups, particularly African-Americans.

And some sociologists say that grouping all multiracial people together glosses over differences in circumstances between someone who is, say, black and Latino, and someone who is Asian and white. (Among interracial couples, white-Asian pairings tend to be better educated and have higher incomes, according to Reynolds Farley, a professor emeritus at the University of Michigan.)

Along those lines, it is telling that the rates of intermarriage are lowest between blacks and whites, indicative of the enduring economic and social distance between them.

Prof. Rainier Spencer, director of the Afro-American Studies Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and the author of “Reproducing Race: The Paradox of Generation Mix,” says he believes that there is too much “emotional investment” in the notion of multiracialism as a panacea for the nation’s age-old divisions. “The mixed-race identity is not a transcendence of race, it’s a new tribe,” he said. “A new Balkanization of race.”…

…The Way We Were

Americans mostly think of themselves in singular racial terms. Witness President Obama’s answer to the race question on the 2010 census: Although his mother was white and his father was black, Mr. Obama checked only one box, black, even though he could have checked both races.

Some proportion of the country’s population has been mixed-race since the first white settlers had children with Native Americans. What has changed is how mixed-race Americans are defined and counted…

Read the entire article here.

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Racial Choice at Century’s End in Contemporary African American Literature

Posted in Dissertations, Literary/Artistic Criticism, Media Archive, United States on 2010-09-19 18:38Z by Steven

Racial Choice at Century’s End in Contemporary African American Literature

University of Maryland
2008
161 pages

Kaylen Danielle Tucker

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2008

This dissertation introduces the term “racial choice” to describe a contemporary idea that racial identity can be chosen or elected, as can the significance and the influence of race on an individual’s identity. Racial choice emerges out of the shifting historical, cultural, and social discussions of race and identity we have witnessed after integration. This dissertation examines the resulting representations of contemporary black identity in African American literature by analyzing texts that were published in the last quarter of the twentieth century and that feature protagonists that come of age during or after integration. Andrea Lee’s Sarah Phillips (1984), Danzy Senna’s Caucasia (1998), and Paul Beatty’s The White Boy Shuffle (1996) are representative texts that engage racial choice to register how the racial hierarchy has changed in the late twentieth century and how that change affects the African American literary tradition of race writing. In their attempts to write outside of the existing racial paradigm—using white flight, passing, and satire as narrative strategies—the authors test the racial boundaries of African American literature, finding that writing outside of race is ultimately unachievable.

The introductory chapter explains the cultural, literary, and scholarly context of my study, arguing that because race matters differently in the late twentieth century contemporary African American literature handles race uniquely. I argue in my first chapter that Lee uses white flight as a narrative form to move Sarah Phillips beyond the influence of racialization and to suggest class as an alibi for racial difference. Continuing this theme amidst the Black Power Movement of the 1970s and the multiracial project of the 1990s, my second chapter analyzes Senna’s Caucasia, which revises the passing narrative form and explores the viability of choosing a biracial identity. In my third chapter, I show how Beatty’s The White Boy Shuffle satirizes the African American protest tradition to point up the performativity necessary in maintaining racial binaries and suggests that culture is a more accurate identifier than race.

My concluding chapter argues that though the three novels under study challenge racial categories—and by extension race writing—to different degrees, they all use similar methods to point up the shifting significance of race, racial categories, and racial identity. By historicizing attitudes about racial categories, challenging the dichotomous understanding of race, representing the tensions of racial authenticity, and showing the performativity necessary to maintain racial categories, the novels illustrate the traditional boundaries of racial choice and attempt to stretch the limits of the African American literary tradition.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction: The Future American: The “Color Line” and “Racial Choice” at the Millennium
  • Chapter One: Integration and White Flight in Andrea Lee’s Sarah Phillips
  • Chapter Two: Racial Choice and the Contemporary Passing Paradigm
  • Chapter Three: Satire, Performance, and Race in The White Boy Shuffle
  • Conclusion: The Future of Racial Identity and African American Literature
  • Works Cited

Read the entire dissertation here.

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Psychological Adjustment, Behavior and Health Problems in Multiracial Young Adults

Posted in Campus Life, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, United States on 2010-09-16 03:11Z by Steven

Psychological Adjustment, Behavior and Health Problems in Multiracial Young Adults

University of Maryland, College Park
2006
236 pages

Warren L. Kelley

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2006

This study: (1) examined whether multiracial young adults reported lower levels of well-being relative to their White and monoracial minority peers and whether these outcomes were moderated by college attendance or racial identification; and (2) investigated factors, drawn from Root’s (2003) ecological model of multiracial identity development, during adolescence that could predict better well-being outcomes for young adults. Participants were 18-26 years old and drawn from the Wave III archival data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Bearman, Jones, & Udry, 1997), a nationally representative school-based probability sample of participants initially surveyed in 1994-1995, with the Wave III follow-up conducted six years later in 2001-2002. Using a subset of 14,644 participants (615 multiracial, 4,686 monoracial minority, and 9,343 White) the multiracial young adults reported statistically higher levels of depression, drug abuse and physical limitations, and lower levels of self worth than their monoracial counterparts. Effect sizes (partial eta squared), however, were so small, varying between .001 and .003, that these statistical findings did not represent meaningful differences. Therefore, the current study found evidence of fewer difficulties of multiracial young adults relative to their monoracial peers, when compared to previous researchers who studied the same sample as adolescents and found consistent patterns of negative well-being (Milan & Keiley, 2000; Udry et al., 2003). In part this may be because previous researchers did not present effect sizes. Using a second subset of 8,978 participants (402 multiracial, 2,617 monoracial minority, and 5,959 White) a two phased, multi-group structural equation model examined the relationship between adolescence and young adulthood factors and found that multiracial participants had the highest path coefficients for depression and living with both biological parents in comparison to their monoracial counterparts. College attendance was found to not change the relationship of multiracial young adults on reported well-being outcomes in comparison to their monoracial counterparts. In the area of multiracial identification, there was no evidence that multiracial young adults who reported their racial category as multiracial versus monoracial exhibited higher well-being outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Chapter 1 – Introduction
  • Chapter 2 – Review of the Literature
    • Defining What it Means to be Multiracial
    • Multiracial Identity Models
    • Factors Influencing Well Being and Identity Development
      • Family environment
      • School, Friends and Neighborhood Environments
      • Generational/Societal Acceptance
      • Multiracial Change From Adolescence to Young Adulthood
      • College Experience
    • Adjustment Outcomes in Multiracial Young People
      • Self Esteem
      • Psychological, Behavior and Health Outcomes Using Add Health Data
  • Chapter 3 – Statement of Problem
  • Chapter 4 – Method
    • Design Statement
    • Participants
    • Measures
    • Procedures
  • Chapter 5 – Results
    • Preliminary Analyses
    • Hypotheses 1a and 1b
    • Hypothesis 2
    • Hypothesis 3
    • Additional Analyses
  • Chapter 6 – Discussion
    • Summary
    • Multiracial Young Adults and Well-being
    • Adolescent Predictors of Well-being in Multiracial Young Adults
    • Multiracial Identity Development and Well-being
    • Limitations
    • Implications for Practice
    • Areas of Future Research
  • Appendix A – Add Health Project Description
  • Appendix B – Initial and Final Items
  • Appendix C – Wave I and Wave III Item Comparison
  • References

LIST OF TABLES

  1. Comparison Psychological Adjustment, Behaviors and Health/Somatization Significant Findings
  2. Demographic comparisons of retained and removed participants
  3. SEM measurement model fit indices (whole sample Wave I-III subset 8,978)
  4. Summary of Initial and Final Latent Constructs and Factors
  5. M, SD and Intercorrelations among predictor and outcome variables using Wave I-III subset of 8,978 participants
  6. M, SD and Intercorrelations among predictor and outcome variables using Wave I-III subset of 402 multiracial participants.
  7. SEM Single and Multi-group Model Fit Indices
  8. Multi-group Comparisons on Factor Loadings for the Measurement Model
  9. Factor loadings and structural paths released
  10. Racial Identification Change from Wave I to Wave III
  11. Multiracial identification and Wave III dependent factors
  12. College vs. non-college participants compared at Wave I factors
  13. Wave I parental income and Wave III outcome factors – Pearson correlation and simple regression
  14. Race specific categories using Wave III subset of 14,644
  15. Means, Standard Deviations for Wave III outcomes for monoracial groups and selective multiracial groups
  16. Significant ANOVA results shown across Wave III dependent factors for specific multiracial groups

LIST OF FIGURES

  1. SEM Initial Measurement and Structural Model
  2. SEM Final Measurement and Structural Model
  3. SEM Final Multi-group Structural Model with Path Coefficients

Read the entire dissertation here.

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Challenges and Resilience in the Lives of Multiracial Adults: The Development and Validation of a Measure

Posted in Dissertations, Media Archive, United States on 2010-09-16 01:30Z by Steven

Challenges and Resilience in the Lives of Multiracial Adults: The Development and Validation of a Measure

Nazish M. Salahuddin

University of Maryland, College Park
2008
141 pages

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2008

The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale (MCRS). The MCRS is a measure of the types of challenges (i.e., Others’ Surprise/Disbelief Reactions, Lack of Family Acceptance/Understanding, Multiracial Discrimination, Feelings of Disconnection from Family and Friends) and resilience (i.e., Appreciation of Human Differences, Multiracial Pride) experienced by Multiracial adults. Participants (N = 317) included a national sample of individuals who identified their biological parents as representing two or more different racial groups. All participants resided in large metropolitan areas within the continental United States at the time of data collection. Data were collected through the use of an internet survey containing the MCRS and measures used to assess convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency estimates of subscales ranged from .76 to .83. Convergent validity was supported through positive relations of the Challenge subscales with depression and positive relations of the Resilience scales with self-esteem. Discriminant validity was supported through the absence of correlations between the Challenges scales and Orderliness and lack of relationship between the Resilience scales and Social Desirability. Directions for future research and the limitations of this study are discussed.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • Theoretical Basis
    • Definitions: Race and Racism
    • Racism and Multiracial Adults
    • Research Summary of Multiracial Challenges and Resilience
    • Race-related Challenges
    • Positive Adaptations
    • Shih and Sanchez (2005): A comprehensive literature review
    • Current measures
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 2: Review of the Literature
    • Resilience Theory and Critical Race Theory
      • Resilience Theory
      • Resilience and Critical Race Theory
    • Race-related Challenges
      • Racism
      • Social Invalidation
      • Negative Psychological Outcomes
    • Resilience Gained Through Multiracial Experience
      • Enhanced Social Functioning
      • Positive Psychological Outcomes
    • Shih and Sanchez (2005): A comprehensive Literature Review
    • Current Measures
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 3: Method and Results
    • Phase One: MCRS Item Development
      • Phase One Method
      • Phase One Hypotheses
      • Phase One Results
    • Phase Two: Factor Analyses and Initial Reliability and Validity Estimates
      • Phase Two Method
        • Participants
        • Procedure
        • Measures
        • Phase Two Hypotheses
        • Phase Two Analyses
        • Phase Two Results
        • Demographic Information for Sample A
        • Factor analyses for Challenges Scale: Sample A
        • Demographic information for Sample B
        • Factor analyses for Challenges Scale: Sample B
        • Factor analyses for Resilience Scale: Sample A
        • Factor analyses for Resilience Scale: Sample B

    • Description of Factors on the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale
    • Descriptive Analyses: Description of Sample
    • Relationships Between Factors on the MCRS
      • Phase Three: Additional Reliability Estimates

        • Phase Three Method
          • Participants
          • Procedures
          • Measures
        • Phase Three Hypotheses
        • Phase Three Analysis
        • Phase Three Results
      • Post Hoc Analyses
        • Assessment of Mean Differences in MCRS scores
        • Assessment of the Usefulness of MCRS Subscales as Predictors of Self-esteem
        • Further investigation of the relationships of Disconnection and Multiracial
        • Pride with Self-esteem
  • Chapter 4: Discussion
    • Description of sample
    • Potential Biases in the Data Due to Sampling Procedure
    • Hypothesized and actual factor structures of MCRS
    • Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the MCRS
    • Test Re-test Reliability
    • Post-hoc Analyses
    • Future Research and Possible Interventions
    • Limitations
    • Conclusion
  • APPENDIX A: Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale
  • APPENDIX B: Social Connectedness Scale
  • APPENDIX C: Satisfaction with Life Scale
  • APPENDIX D: Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale
  • APPENDIX E: Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure
  • APPENDIX F: Social Self-efficacy Scale
  • APPENDIX G: Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale
  • APPENDIX H: Order
  • APPENDIX I: Marlowe-Crown Social Desirability Scale Form C
  • APPENDIX J: Demographic Questionnaire
  • References

LIST OF TABLES

  • Table 1. Final items retained on Challenges scale for Sample A and Sample B
  • Table 2. Final items retained on Resilience scale for Sample A and Sample B
  • Table 3. Bivariate Correlations Among Scales and Internal Consistency Estimates,Means, Standard Deviations, Actual Ranges, and Possible Ranges of Measured Variables
  • Table 4. Test Re-test Reliability Estimates for the Multiracial Risk and Resilience Subscales and Actual Range, Possible Range, and Alpha Coefficients
  • Table 5. Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses Predicting Self-esteem
  • Table 6. Summary of Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses Testing Multiracial Pride as a Moderator between Disconnection from Family and Friends and Self-esteem
  • Table 7. Summary of Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses Testing Self-esteem as a Moderator between Disconnection from Family and Friends and Multiracial Pride

Read the entire dissertation here.

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The nature of bi-ethnic identity in young adults of Asian and European descent and their perceptions of familial influences on its development

Posted in Asian Diaspora, Dissertations, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, United States on 2010-05-28 04:47Z by Steven

The nature of bi-ethnic identity in young adults of Asian and European descent and their perceptions of familial influences on its development

University of Maryland
Department of Human Development
2009

Amanda Laurel Wagner Hoa

The purpose of this study was to identify the key constructs of bi-ethnic identity, the key familial influences, and other salient influences on bi-ethnic identity as perceived by young adults of Asian and European descent. The rapidly changing demographics of the United States provide an impetus for research on the developmental processes of bi-ethnic individuals. In this qualitative study, participants were interviewed about their bi-ethnic identities and possible influences on bi-ethnic identity development. Data analysis for this study incorporated techniques from grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and analytic induction (LeCompte & Preissle, 1993). Five bi-ethnic identity types emerged from participants’ responses to interview questions: majority identity, minority identity, dual identity, integrated identity, and unresolved identity. These identity types are a unique contribution to the literature in that they specify how individuals of Asian and European descent define themselves. Additionally, this study identified four facets of bi-ethnic identity that indicate how bi-ethnic individuals think and feel about their background: centrality, self-label, affirmation, and affect. Six categories of influences on bi-ethnic identity development emerged from responses to interview questions (parental, extended family, personal, peer, environmental, discrimination), with 18 subcategories. This study is important because most prior research on bi-ethnic identity has focused on uncovering developmental stages, while we lack understanding of the nature of bi-ethnic identity and influences on its development. This study was important given the dearth of research on bi-ethnic Asians, although future research is needed with other bi-ethnic groups.

Download restricted until 2015-10-06.

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