Visualizing Race: Neoliberal Multiculturalism and the Struggle for Koreanness in Contemporary South Korean Television

Posted in Asian Diaspora, Communications/Media Studies, Dissertations, Media Archive, United States on 2013-10-16 03:07Z by Steven

Visualizing Race: Neoliberal Multiculturalism and the Struggle for Koreanness in Contemporary South Korean Television

University of Texas at Austin
August 2013
240 pages

Ji-Hyun Ahn

Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

“Visualizing Race: Neoliberal Multiculturalism and the Struggle for Koreanness in Contemporary South Korean Television” investigates visual representations of multicultural subjects in both celebrity culture and the reality television genre to examine the struggle for Koreanness in contemporary Korean television. My aim is to explain the transformation from a modern monoracial Korea to a multicultural, global Korea as a national project of what I call “neoliberal multiculturalism” and to problematize the implicit tie between the two words, “neoliberal” and “multiculturalism.” Using the category of mixed-race as an analytical window onto this cultural shift, I attempt to link the recent explosion of multiculturalism discourse in Korea to the much larger cultural, institutional, and ideological implications of racial globalization. To illustrate this shift, the dissertation analyzes both black and white mixed-race celebrities as well as ordinary multicultural subjects appearing on Korean reality programs. I examine historical archives, popular press sources, policy documents, and television programs in order to analyze them as an inter-textual network that is actively negotiating national identity.

Utilizing the concept of neoliberal multiculturalism as an overarching framework, the dissertation explicates how concepts such as nationality, race, gender, class, and the television genre are intricately articulated; it also critically deconstructs the hegemonic notion of a multicultural, global Korea presented by the Korean media. I argue that Korean television deploys racial representations as a way to suture national anxiety over an increasing number of racial others and projects a multicultural fantasy towards Koreans. This interdisciplinary project contributes to several fields of study by explicating the changed cultural meaning of mixed-race in the age of globalization, defining the organic relation between the medium of television and racial representation, broadening our understanding of Asian multiculturalism and the racial politics in the region, and examining the particulars of ethnic nationalism appearing in the Korean media and popular culture.

Read the entire dissertation here.

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Purchasing Whiteness in Colonial Latin America

Posted in Articles, Caribbean/Latin America, History, Media Archive on 2013-09-21 05:39Z by Steven

Purchasing Whiteness in Colonial Latin America

Not Even Past: “The past is never dead. It’s not even past.” —William Faulkner
Department of History
University of Texas at Austin
2013-09-18

Ann Twinam, Professor of History
University of Texas, Austin

The castas, or mixed race populations, suffered numerous forms of discrimination in colonial Latin America, but in practice pardos and mulatos could still achieve some social mobility.  A rare few, by the mid eighteenth century, were able to petition the Spanish crown through a process known as the gracias al sacar, to purchase whiteness…

Read the entire article here.

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Drawn in Bloodlines: Blood, Pollution, Identity, and Vampires in Japanese Society

Posted in Asian Diaspora, Dissertations, History, Media Archive, Social Science on 2012-10-22 01:01Z by Steven

Drawn in Bloodlines: Blood, Pollution, Identity, and Vampires in Japanese Society

University of Texas, Austin
May 2012
117 pages

Benjamin Paul Miller

Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

This thesis is an examination of the evolution of blood ideology, which is to say the use of blood as an organizing metaphor, in Japanese society. I begin with the development of blood as a substance of significant in the eighth century and trace its development into a metaphor for lineage in the Tokugawa period. I discuss in detail blood’s conceptual and rhetorical utility throughout the post-Restoration period, first examining its role in establishing a national subjectivity in reference to both the native intellectual tradition of the National Learning and the foreign hegemony of race. I then discuss the rationalization of popular and national bloodlines under the auspices of the popular eugenics movement, and the National Eugenics Bill. Then, I discuss the racialization this conception of blood inflicted on the Tokugawa era Outcastes, and its persistent consequences. Through the incongruity of the Outcastes ability to “pass” despite popular expectations that their blood pollution was visibly demonstrative, I introduce the notion of blood anxiety. Next, I address the conceptual and rhetorical role blood played in articulating Japan’s empire and imperial ambitions, focusing on the Theory of Common Descent and the Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus report. I follow this discussion with a detailed examination of the postwar reconceptualization of national subjectivity, which demands native bloodlines and orthodox cultural expressions, and which effectively de-legitimized minority populations. As illustration of this point, I describe the impact of this new subjectivity on both the Zainichi and the Nikkeijin in lengthy case studies. Finally, I conclude this examination with a consideration of blood ideology’s representation in popular culture. I argue that the subgenre of vampire media allegorizes many of the assumptions and anxieties surrounding blood that have developed since the Restoration, and demonstrates the imprint of blood ideology on contemporary society.

Table of Contents

  • List of Tables
  • Introduction
    • Blood Matters
    • Thesis Organization
  • Chapter One: The Development of Blood as an Organizing Metaphor
    • The Blood Bowl Sutra and the Feminization of Blood Pollution
    • SĹŤtĹŤ Zen and the Dissemination of Blood Determinism
    • Lineage and a New Vocabulary
  • Chapter Two: Bloodlines in Modern Japanese Society
    • A State Without a Nation
    • The Formulation of the Family-State
    • Civil Code and Constitution
    • Eugenics and the Rationalization of Bloodlines
      • Race, Science, and the Introduction of Eugenic Thought
      • Popular Eugenics
      • State Eugenics
    • From Outcastes to Burakumin
      • Outcastness as Pollution
      • The Racialization of the Outcastes
      • Infiltration and Blood Anxiety
  • Chapter Three: The Empire
    • Blood-Kinship and Overseas Expansion
    • Imperial Manifesto
  • Chapter Four – Postwar Reconceptualization and the De-legitimization of Minority Populations
    • The Aesthetics of Ethnic Homogeneity
    • Blood and Culture
    • Zainichi
      • Colonial Koreans and Their Subjective Shift
      • Hereditary Foreigners
    • The Nikkeijin
      • Immigration and the Racially Homogenous State
      • The Sakoku-Kaikoku Debate
      • 1990 Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act
      • Culture Clash
  • Chapter Five – Blood Ideology in the Popular Media
    • The Vampire Boom
    • The Vampire as Blood Allegory
  • Bibliography
  • Vita

Read the entire dissertation here.

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Between Two Worlds: Consequences of Dual-Group Membership among Children

Posted in Dissertations, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive on 2011-09-05 18:48Z by Steven

Between Two Worlds: Consequences of Dual-Group Membership among Children

University of Texas, Austin
May 2008
98 pages

Katherine Vera Aumer-Ryan

Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Increasing numbers of individuals are simultaneously members of two or more social categories. To investigate the effects of single- versus dual-identity status on children’s group views and intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 91) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included single-identity (“blue” and “red”) and dual-identity (“bicolored,” or half red and half blue) members. The degree to which dual-identity status was verified by the authority members was also manipulated: teachers in some classrooms were instructed to label and make use of three social groups (“blues,” “reds,” “bicolors”) to organize their classrooms, whereas teachers in other classrooms were instructed to label and make use of only the two “mono-colored” groups (“blues” and “reds”). After several weeks in their classrooms, children’s (a) views of group membership (i.e., importance, satisfaction, perceived similarity, group preference), (b) intergroup attitudes (i.e., traits ratings, group evaluations, peer preferences), and (c) categorization complexity (i.e., tendency to sort individuals along multiple dimensions simultaneously) were assessed. Results varied across measures but, in general, indicated that dual-identity status affected children’s views of their ingroup. Specifically, dual-identity children in classrooms in which their status was not verified were more likely to (a) perceive themselves as similar to other ingroup members (i.e., bicolored children), (b) want to keep their shirt color, and (c) assume that a new student would want their shirt color more than their single-identity peers. They also showed higher levels of ingroup bias in their competency ratings of groups than their single-identity peers, and demonstrated greater cognitive flexibility when thinking about social categories than their single-identity peers. Overall, these results suggest that dual-identity children experience identity issues differently than their single-identity peers and that additional theories are needed to address the complexities of social membership and bias among children with dual memberships.

Table of Contents

  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Chapter One: Introduction and Literature Review
    • Introduction
    • Theoretical Background
    • Single- Versus Dual-Group Identity
    • Contextual, Individual Differences and Developmental Factors
  • Chapter Two: Method
    • Participants
    • Overview of Procedure
    • Experimental Conditions
    • Posttest Measures
    • Views of Group Membership
    • Categorization Complexity
    • Conformity
  • Chapter Three: Results
    • Overview
    • Effects of Identity Status and Condition on Views of Group Membership
    • Effects of Identity Status on Intergroup Attitudes
    • Categorization Task
    • Individual and Developmental Differences
  • Chapter Four: Discussion
  • Figure
  • Tables
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A: Intergroup Outcome Measures
    • Appendix B: Conformity
    • Appendix C: Sample of Presidential Poster
    • Appendix D: Novel Categorization Stimuli
  • References
  • Vita

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Average Scores of Similarity to a Child’s In-Group Across Conditions and Identities

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Participant Characteristics Across Conditions
  • Table 2: Means (and Standard Deviations) for Posttest Measures Across Conditions and Identities
  • Table 3: HLM Results for the Predictors of Children’s Ratings for Group Importance, Happiness, and Similarity
  • Table 4: HLM Results for the Interactions of Predictors of Children’s Ratings of Similarity
  • Table 5: HLM Results for Predictors of Children’s Ratings for Peer Preferences and Traits
  • Table 6: HLM Results for Predictors of Children’s Ratings of Group Competencies
  • Table 7: HLM Results for Predictors of Children’s Novel Categorization Task
  • Table 8: Percentage of Children who Desired to Change their Shirt to Red, Blue, or Bicolored Across Identities
  • Table 9: Percentage of Children who Desired to Change their Shirt to Red, Blue, or Bicolored Across Conditions
  • Table 10: Percentage of Children Wanting to Keep their Group Membership
  • Table 11: Percentage of Children Wanting to Keep their Group Membership Across Conditions
  • Table 12: Percentage of Children Predicting a New Student’s Preference of Shirt Color Across Identities
  • Table 13: Percentage of Children by Condition Predicting a New Student’s Preference of Shirt Color Across Conditions
  • Table 14: Percentage of Children Predicting a New Student’s Preference of Shirt Color Across Conditions and Identities
  • Table 15 Means and Standard Errors of Self-Group Similarity Across Identity
  • Table 16: Means and Standard Errors of In-Group Peer Preference Across Conditions
  • Table 17: Intergroup Correlation Matrix
  • Table 18: Betas of Age, Conformity, and Manipulation on Dependent Variables

Read the entire dissertation here.

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Racial Queer: Multiracial College Students at the Intersection of Identity, Education and Agency

Posted in Campus Life, Dissertations, Gay & Lesbian, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, United States on 2011-08-24 21:43Z by Steven

Racial Queer: Multiracial College Students at the Intersection of Identity, Education and Agency

University of Texas, Austin
May 2010
495 pages

Aurora Chang-Ross

A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas a Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy The University of Texas at Austin

Racial Queer is a qualitative study of Multiracial college students with a critical ethnographic component. The design methods, grounded in Critical Race Methodology and Feminist Thought (both theories that inform Critical Ethnography), include: 1) 25 semi-structured interviews of Multiracial students, 2) of which 5 were expanded into case studies, 3) 3 focus groups, 4) observations of the sole registered student organization for Multiracial students on Central University’s campus, 5) field notes and 6) document analysis. The dissertation examines the following question: How do Multiracial students understand and experience their racialized identities within a large, public, tier-one research university in Texas? In addition, it addresses the following sub-questions: How do Multiracial students experience their racialized identities in their everyday interactions with others, in relation to their own self-perceptions and in response to the way others perceive them to be? How do Multiracial students’ positionalities, as they relate to power, privilege, phenotype and status, guide their behavior in different contexts and situations?

Using Holland et al.’s (1998) social practice theory of self and identity, Chicana Feminist Theory, and tenets of Queer Theory, this study illustrates how Multiracial college students utilize agency as racial queers to construct and negotiate their identities within a context where identity is both self-constructed and produced for them. I introduce the term, racial queer, to frame the unconventional space of the Multiracial individual. I use this term not to convey sexuality, but to convey the parallels of queerness (both as a term of empowerment and derogation) as they pertain to being Multiracial. In other words, queerness denotes a unique individuality as well as a deviation from the norm (Sullivan, 2003; Warner, 1993; Gamson, 2000).

The primary purpose of this study is to illustrate the agentic ways in which Multiracial college students come to understand and experience the complexity of their racialized identity production. Preliminary findings suggest the need to expand the scope of racial discourses to include Multiracial experiences and for further study of Multiracial students. Their counter-narratives access an otherwise invisible student population, providing an opportunity to broaden critical discourses around education and race.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One: Introduction
    • An Autobiographical Preface
    • Overview of Study
    • Research Question
    • Importance of the Topic
    • Outline of Study
  • Chapter Two: Literature Review
    • Introduction
    • Critical Race Theory and the Social Construction/Lived Experience of Race
    • The Multiracial Population – The Census: “Check One or More”
    • Historical Origins of Multiraciality in the United States.
    • Multiracials as Underrepresented Group – One Step Forward or Backward?
    • Racial Identity Development Theories and Models – An Overview
    • Multiracial College Students
    • Student Development Theory & Campus Climate
    • Education and Multiracial Students
    • Conceptual Framework
      • Introduction
      • Social Practice Theory of Self and Identity
      • Chicana Feminist Theory
      • Tenets of Queer Theory
      • Racial Queer
  • Chapter Three: Methodology
    • Reflections of a Multiracial Researcher
    • Genealogy of Methodology
    • Research Overview
    • Why Qualitative Research?
    • Setting
    • Participants
    • Selection Criteria
    • Counter Storytelling
    • Methods Rooted in Feminist Thought
    • Observations
    • Field Notes
    • Interviews
    • Case Studies
    • Focus Groups
    • Data Management and Analysis
    • Researcher’s Positionality
    • Making Sense of Methods
  • Chapter Four: Portraits of Racial Queers
    • Introduction to Participant Narratives
    • Participant Narratives
      • Dee-Dee
      • Solomon
      • May
      • Jonathan
      • Melissa
      • Conclusion
  • Chapter Five: Themes – Understanding and Experiencing Multiracial
    • Identity
    • Introduction
    • Racial Rubric – “I don’t have a racial rubric to follow.”
    • Racial Disclosure – “I couldn’t be passive about it. And I just told this girl, No! I am Hispanic!”
    • Identity Fusion – “There’s little way of being able to separate all of those identities out.”
    • Multiracial Entitlement–“ I felt more entitled to the [Multiracial] label.”
    • Development of Portraits/Narratives
    • Discussion
    • Agency
    • Culturally Responsive Teaching and Hidden Curriculum
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter Six: Multiracial Students in the Daily Practice of Schooling
    • Introduction
    • Learning the meaning of race at school
    • General Findings
      • Identity
      • Findings Specific to Multiracial Identity
      • The Politics of racial identification terminology
      • Negotiating and Strategizing – Racial Identity and Relationships
      • Phenotype Matters
      • Collective Experiences – Multiracials as Community
      • Skills, Intuition and Perspective – Lessons in Constructing Multiracial Identity
      • Implications and Significance
      • Expansion of Racial Discourses-Challenging Racial
      • Inclusivity
      • Rethinking and Reevaluating of Educational Public Policies
    • Final Thoughts
    • Reflections of a Native Researcher
    • Recommendations for Future Research
    • Lessons Learned
  • Appendix
    • -A Brief Genealogy
    • -Email to Participants
    • -Interview Questions and Prompts
    • -Informed Consent to Participate In Research
  • References
  • Vita

Read the entire dissertation here.

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Making Race: The Role of Free Blacks in the Development of New Orleans’ Three-Caste Society, 1791-1812

Posted in Dissertations, History, Louisiana, Slavery, United States on 2010-11-01 18:33Z by Steven

Making Race: The Role of Free Blacks in the Development of New Orleans’ Three-Caste Society, 1791-1812

University of Texas, Austin
May 2007
219 pages

Kenneth Randolph Aslakson, Assistant Professor of History
Union College, Schenectady, New York

Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy The University of Texas at Austin May, 2007

“Making Race: The Role of Free Blacks in the Development of New Orleans’ Three-Caste Society, 1791-1812” excavates the ways that free people of African descent in New Orleans built an autonomous identity as a third “race” in what would become a unique racial caste system in the United States. I argue that in the time period I study, which encompasses not only the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, but also the rise of plantation slavery and the arrival of over twelve thousand refugees from the revolution torn French West Indies, New Orleans’s free blacks took advantage of political, cultural and legal uncertainty to protect and gain privileges denied to free blacks elsewhere in the South. The dissertation is organized around three sites in which free blacks forged and articulated a distinct collective identity: the courtroom, the ballroom, and the militia. This focus on specific spaces of racial contestation allows me to trace the multivalent development of racial identity. “Making Race” brings together the special dynamism of the Atlantic world in the Age of Revolution with the ability of individuals to act within structures of power to shape their surroundings. I show that changing political regimes (in the time period I study New Orleans was ruled by the Spanish, the French and the Americans) together with the socio-economic, ideological and demographic impact of the Haitian Revolution created opportunities for new social and legal understandings of race in the Crescent City. More importantly, however, I show how members of New Orleans’s free black community, strengthened numerically and heavily influenced by thousands of gens de couleur refugees of the Haitian Revolution, shaped the racialization process by asserting a collective identity as a distinct middle caste, contributing to the creation of a tri-racial system.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
    • Free Blacks in Slave Societies
    • Race and Revolution in the Atlantic World
    • The Laws and Legal Systems in Racially Based Slave Societies
    • Organization of the Dissertation
  • Chapter 1 Racial Identity Formation in a Burgeoning Port City
  • Chapter 2 “When the Question is Slavery or Freedom:” The Legal Construction of Three Races in Early New Orleans
    • New Orleans in the Age of Slavery and Revolution
    • Making Slavery: The Precariousness of Freedom
    • Making Freedom: Status Suits in the New Orleans City Court
    • Making Race: The Legal Resolution of the Slave-Free Paradox
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 3 The Power of Weakness: Free Black Women in the New Orleans City Court
    • Black Litigation in Spanish Louisiana and the Impact of the Louisiana Purchase
    • Escape From Marriage Law: The Litigiousness of Free Women of African Descent
    • The Power of Weakness: Fraud and Assault Cases in the New Orleans City Court
    • The New Racial Order: Changing Color and Changing Laws
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 4 The Politics of Dancing: Control, Resistance, and Identity in the Early New Orleans Ballroom
    • Fear of Black Dancing and the Origins of the Public Ball
    • Vice, Violence, and the Origins of the (Tri-) Colored Balls
    • The Great Purchase, Immigration, and the Segregation of Dancing Centers
    • Control, Resistance, Identity and the Origins of the Quadroon Balls.143
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 5 “We Shall Serve with Fidelity and Zeal:” The Citizen-Soldiers of the Free Colored Militia
    • The Demographics of Defense: Free Colored Militias in New World Slave Societies
    • Fear and Opportunity: the Free Colored Militia in Spanish Louisiana During the Age of Revolution
    • “Free Citizens of Louisiana:” The Free Colored Militia in Territorial New Orleans
    • The Militia’s Swansong: Andrew Jackson and the Battle of New Orleans
    • Conclusion
  • Conclusion “In [and Outside] the Eye of Louisiana Law:” Creole of Color Identity Before and After Plessy
  • Bibliography
  • Vita

Introduction

In October of 2003, having recently arrived in New Orleans to do research for this dissertation, I attended the “Creole Studies Consortium” held at Tulane University. Most of the people attending this gathering (which was part academic conference, part genealogical convention, and part family reunion) called themselves “Creoles of color” or simply “Creoles,” though it soon became clear to me that there was some disagreement as to the precise meaning of this term. For some, a Creole is someone whose ancestors were free people of color when slavery still existed in Louisiana. For others, the European ancestors of Creoles must have been of Spanish or (preferably) French descent. The most exclusive definition holds that a true Creole can trace his or her French and African ancestry back to the colonial period in Louisiana before the Louisiana Purchase. Nevertheless, all agreed that a Creole is a person whose ancestors were free and of mixed European and African descent with roots in pre-Civil War Louisiana. While they do not deny their partial African ancestry, most of Louisiana’s present day Creoles do not self identify as “black” or even “African-American,” even though most people from outside of the state Louisiana (and many within) would consider them to be such.

This dissertation examines the origins of the distinct racial identity of the group of people who today call themselves Louisiana “Creoles” (or “Creoles of Color”) by excavating the ways in which free people of color in early New Orleans built an autonomous identity as a third “race” in what would become a unique racial caste system rise of plantation slavery and the arrival of over twelve thousand refugees from the revolution-torn French West Indies, New Orleans’s free people of color took advantage of political, cultural and legal uncertainty to protect and gain privileges denied to free blacks elsewhere in the South. I show that changing political regimes (in this time period New Orleans was ruled by the Spanish, the French and the Americans), a transforming economy, and the ideological and demographic impact of the Haitian Revolution combined to create opportunities for new cultural and legal understandings of race in the Crescent City. More importantly, however, I show how members of New Orleans’s free colored community, strengthened numerically and heavily influenced by thousands of gens de couleur refugees, shaped the racialization process by asserting a collective identity as a distinct middle caste, contributing to the creation of a tri-racial system. In other words, the emergence of a three tiered racial caste system in the Crescent City was not the necessary product of global structures. Rather, the free people of color of New Orleans made their own distinct racial identity, and protected the relative rights and privileges that went with it.

Read the entire dissertation here.

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University of Texas (Austin) Students Needed for Research About Black-White Multiracial College Students

Posted in Campus Life, New Media, Texas, United States, Wanted/Research Requests/Call for Papers on 2010-10-15 01:45Z by Steven

CeCe Ridder is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Higher Education Administration at The University of Texas at Austin and is recruiting University of Texas at Austin students for a research study about Black-White Multiracial college students.  She is seeking registered students at UT Austin in the third or fourth year of study and have one parent from a Black or African American racial category and one from a White or European racial category.   She would be very interested in speaking to them more about involvement or non-involvement in student organizations and racial identity. This interview is a conversation style, confidential process.

The title of this study is: Multiracial College Students: Exploring Racial Identity Through Student Organizations. The significance of this study is to explore how multiracial students utilize student organizations, and what influence this involvement has on racial and other social identities (gender, age, sexual orientation, etc). The implications for college administrators will be a more in depth understanding of multiracial students, and improve policy, curricula, advising and counseling.

The student participation will include a brief survey, one 60-90 minute in person interview and a 60 minute follow-up interview at a convenient time and location.  If you have any students in mind, can you please e-mail her his/her name and e-mail address and she can send them an e-mail, or feel free to send this request to them with her information, CeCe.Ridder@mccombs.utexas.edu or by phone (512) 789-7410.

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