Passing and the Costs and Benefits of Appropriating Blackness

Posted in Articles, Economics, Media Archive, Passing, Social Science, United States on 2019-02-20 19:37Z by Steven

Passing and the Costs and Benefits of Appropriating Blackness

The Review of Black Political Economy
Volume 45, Issue 2, 2018
pages 1-19
DOI: 10.1177/0034644618789182

Kristen E. Broady, Vice Provost for Graduate Studies
Kentucky State University

Curtis L. Todd, Associate Professor of Social Work
Atlanta Metropolitan State College, Atlanta, Georgia

William A. Darity, Jr., Samuel DuBois Cook Professor of Public Policy
Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

The socioeconomic position of Blacks in America cannot be fully contextualized without considering the marginalization of their racialized social identities as minorities who have historically combated subjugation and oppression with respect to income, employment, homeownership, education, and political representation. It is not difficult to understand why the historical reference to “passing” primarily has been associated with Blacks who were able to—and many who did—claim to be White to secure the social, educational, political, and economic benefits that were reserved for Whites. Therefore, the majority of passing narratives have focused on Black to White passing. This article departs from the tradition in the literature by considering appropriation of various aspects of Black culture and White to Black passing. We evaluate the socioeconomic costs and benefits of being Black and inequalities in citizenship status between Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, we examine the socioeconomic and political capital of Blackness versus Whiteness in an attempt to explore the rationality of passing for Black.

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Latino racial choices: the effects of skin colour and discrimination on Latinos’ and Latinas’ racial self-identifications

Posted in Articles, Census/Demographics, Latino Studies, Media Archive, Social Science, United States on 2013-05-24 14:33Z by Steven

Latino racial choices: the effects of skin colour and discrimination on Latinos’ and Latinas’ racial self-identifications

Ethnic and Racial Studies
Volume 31, Issue 5, 2008
pages 899-934
DOI: 10.1080/01419870701568858

Tanya Golash-Boza, Associate Professor of Sociology
University of California, Merced

William Darity, Jr., Arts & Sciences Professor of Public Policy, African and African American Studies, and Economics
Duke University

Are predictions that Hispanics will make up 25 per cent of the US population in 2050 reliable? The authors of this paper argue that these and other predictions are problematic insofar as they do not account for the volatile nature of Latino racial and ethnic identifications. In this light, the authors propose a theoretical framework that can be used to predict Latinos’ and Latinas’ racial choices. This framework is tested using two distinct datasets – the 1989 Latino National Political Survey and the 2002 National Survey of Latinos. The results from the analyses of both of these surveys lend credence to the authors’ claims that Latinas’ and Latinos’ skin colour and experiences of discrimination affect whether people from Latin America and their descendants who live in the US will choose to identify racially as black, white or Latina/o.

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The best evidence suggests there has yet to be a sea change in the proportion of Americans selecting a multiracial identity.

Posted in Excerpts/Quotes on 2012-12-10 02:44Z by Steven

The best evidence suggests there has yet to be a sea change in the proportion of Americans selecting a multiracial identity. Furthermore, practices of racial self-classification are much less likely to have any significant implications for the direction of social policies than practices of social classification—how people are perceived and categorized racially and ethnically by others. A person’s life chances are far more greatly influenced by how others see and situate them than by the individual’s personal selection of a racial classification. Indeed, an individual’s physical attributes and their interpretation by others often are the critical factors dictating how he or she is treated by others.

William Darity, Jr., “How might social policies change as more Americans identify themselves as ‘multiracial’?,” Good Question: An Exploration in Ethics series, The Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University, July 9, 2011. http://kenan.ethics.duke.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/GQ-Darity.pdf

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How might social policies change as more Americans identify themselves as “multiracial”?

Posted in Articles, Economics, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, Politics/Public Policy, Social Science, United States on 2012-12-10 02:25Z by Steven

How might social policies change as more Americans identify themselves as “multiracial”?

The Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University
Good Question: An Exploration in Ethics series
2011-07-09

William Darity, Jr., Arts & Sciences Professor of Public Policy, African and African American Studies, and Economics
Duke University

QUESTION: How might social policies change as more Americans identify themselves as “multiracial”?

ANSWER: Are more Americans, in fact, identifying themselves as “multiracial”? Census 2000 provided respondents with the first opportunity to select more than one racial category. At the time, 2.4 percent of all respondents—or about 6.8 million people—actually selected two categories or more for their racial self-classification. While preliminary reports from Census 2010 indicate that the number of persons checking “two or more” racial categories has risen 35% since Census 2000, the overall proportion remains at less than 3% of all Census respondents.

The best evidence suggests there has yet to be a sea change in the proportion of Americans selecting a multiracial identity. Furthermore, practices of racial self-classification are much less likely to have any significant implications for the direction of social policies than practices of social classification—how people are perceived and categorized racially and ethnically by others. A person’s life chances are far more greatly influenced by how others see and situate them than by the individual’s personal selection of a racial classification. Indeed, an individual’s physical attributes and their interpretation by others often are the critical factors dictating how he or she is treated by others….

…With regard to the connection between racial classification and social policies, there has been substantial political pressure to move away from race-targeted policies that were designed to address economic disparities in the U.S. But that pressure is not attributable to the rise in persons choosing a multiracial identity. It is due, instead, to what I believe are strong anti-black sentiments. Black Americans continuously are portrayed as undeserving of social policy initiatives uniquely designed to address their condition, particularly via popular narratives that frame blacks’ subordinate economic condition as due to their own personal irresponsibility and bad behavior…

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The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the United States

Posted in Anthologies, Anthropology, Biography, Books, Gay & Lesbian, History, Identity Development/Psychology, Latino Studies, Literary/Artistic Criticism, Media Archive, Social Science, United States, Women on 2012-01-04 22:20Z by Steven

The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the United States

Duke University Press
2010
584 pages
9.1 x 6.1 x 1.3 inches
Cloth ISBN: 978-0-8223-4558-9
Paperback ISBN: 978-0-8223-4572-5

Edited by:

Miriam Jiménez Romån, Visiting Professor of Africana Studies
New York University

Juan Flores, Professor of Social and Cultural Analysis
New York University

The Afro-Latin@ Reader focuses attention on a large, vibrant, yet oddly invisible community in the United States: people of African descent from Latin America and the Caribbean. The presence of Afro-Latin@s in the United States (and throughout the Americas) belies the notion that Blacks and Latin@s are two distinct categories or cultures. Afro-Latin@s are uniquely situated to bridge the widening social divide between Latin@s and African Americans; at the same time, their experiences reveal pervasive racism among Latin@s and ethnocentrism among African Americans. Offering insight into Afro-Latin@ life and new ways to understand culture, ethnicity, nation, identity, and antiracist politics, The Afro-Latin@ Reader presents a kaleidoscopic view of Black Latin@s in the United States. It addresses history, music, gender, class, and media representations in more than sixty selections, including scholarly essays, memoirs, newspaper and magazine articles, poetry, short stories, and interviews.

While the selections cover centuries of Afro-Latin@ history, since the arrival of Spanish-speaking Africans in North America in the mid-sixteenth-century, most of them focus on the past fifty years. The central question of how Afro-Latin@s relate to and experience U.S. and Latin American racial ideologies is engaged throughout, in first-person accounts of growing up Afro-Latin@, a classic essay by a leader of the Young Lords, and analyses of U.S. census data on race and ethnicity, as well as in pieces on gender and sexuality, major-league baseball, and religion. The contributions that Afro-Latin@s have made to U.S. culture are highlighted in essays on the illustrious Afro-Puerto Rican bibliophile Arturo Alfonso Schomburg and music and dance genres from salsa to mambo, and from boogaloo to hip hop. Taken together, these and many more selections help to bring Afro-Latin@s in the United States into critical view.

Contributors: Afro–Puerto Rican Testimonies Project, Josefina BaĂ©z, Ejima Baker, Luis Barrios, Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Adrian Burgos Jr., Ginetta E. B. Candelario, AdriĂĄn Castro, JesĂșs ColĂłn, Marta I. Cruz-Janzen, William A. Darity Jr., Milca Esdaille, Sandra MarĂ­a Esteves, MarĂ­a Teresa FernĂĄndez (Mariposa), Carlos Flores, Juan Flores, Jack D. Forbes, David F. Garcia, Ruth Glasser, Virginia Meecham Gould, Susan D. Greenbaum, Evelio Grillo, Pablo “Yoruba” GuzmĂĄn, Gabriel Haslip-Viera, Tanya K. HernĂĄndez, Victor HernĂĄndez Cruz, Jesse Hoffnung-Garskof, Lisa Hoppenjans, Vielka Cecilia Hoy, Alan J. Hughes, MarĂ­a Rosario Jackson, James Jennings, Miriam JimĂ©nez RomĂĄn, Angela Jorge, David Lamb, Aida Lambert, Ana M. Lara, Evelyne Laurent-Perrault, Tato Laviera, John Logan, Antonio LĂłpez, Felipe Luciano, Louis Pancho McFarland, Ryan Mann-Hamilton, Wayne Marshall, Marianela Medrano, Nancy Raquel Mirabal, Yvette Modestin, Ed Morales, Jairo Moreno, Marta Moreno Vega, Willie Perdomo, Graciela PĂ©rez GutiĂ©rrez, Sofia Quintero, Ted Richardson, Louis Reyes Rivera, Pedro R. Rivera , Raquel Z. Rivera, Yeidy Rivero, Mark Q. Sawyer, Piri Thomas, Silvio Torres-Saillant, Nilaja Sun, Sherezada “Chiqui” Vicioso, Peter H. Wood

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Editorial Note
  • Introduction
  • I. Historical Background before 1900
    • The Earliest Africans in North America / Peter H. Wood
    • Black Pioneers: The Spanish-Speaking Afroamericans of the Southwest / Jack D. Forbes
    • Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola / Virginia Meacham Gould
    • Afro-Cubans in Tampa / Susan D. Greenbaum
    • Excerpt from Pulling the Muse from the Drum / Adrian Castro
  • II. Arturo Alfonso Schomburg
    • Excerpt from Racial Integrity: A Plea for the Establishment of a Chair of Negro History in Our Schools and Colleges / Arturo Alfonso Schomburg
    • The World of Arturo Alfonso Schomburg / Jesse Hoffnung-Garskof
    • Invoking Arturo Schomburg’s Legacy in Philadelphia / Evelyne Laurent-Perrault
  • III. Afro-Latin@s on the Color Line
    • Black Cuban, Black American / Evelio Grillo
    • A Puerto Rican in New York and Other Sketches / Jesus Colon
    • Melba Alvarado, El Club Cubano Inter-Americano, and the Creation of Afro-Cubanidades in New York City / Nancy Raquel Mirabel
    • An Uneven Playing Field: Afro-Latinos in Major League Baseball / Adrian Burgos Jr.
    • Changing Identities: An Afro-Latino Family Portrait / Gabriel Haslip-Viera
    • Eso era tremendo!: An Afro-Cuban Musician Remembers / Graciela Perez Gutierrez
  • IV. Roots of Salsa: Afro-Latin@ Popular Music
    • From “Indianola” to “Ño ColĂĄ”: The Strange Career of the Afro-Puerto Rican Musician / Ruth Glasser
    • Excerpt from cu/bop / Louis Reyes Rivera
    • BauzĂĄ-Gillespie-Latin/Jazz: Difference, Modernity, and the Black Caribbean / Jairo Moreno
    • Contesting that Damned Mambo: Arsenio Rodriguez and the People of El Barrio and the Bronx in the 1950s / David F. Garcia
    • Boogaloo and Latin Soul / Juan Flores
    • Excerpt from the salsa of bethesda fountain / Tato Laviera
  • V. Black Latin@ Sixties
    • Hair Conking: Buy Black / Carlos Cooks
    • Carlos A. Cooks: Dominican Garveyite in Harlem / Pedro R. Rivera
    • Down These Mean Streets / Piri Thomas
    • African Things / Victor Hernandez Cruz
    • Black Notes and “You Do Something to Me” / Sandra Maria Esteves
    • Before People Called Me a Spic, They Called Me a Nigger / Pablo “Yoruba” Guzman
    • Excerpt from JĂ­baro, My Pretty Nigger / Felipe Luciano
    • The Yoruba Orisha Tradition Comes to New York City / Marta Moreno Vega
    • Reflections and Lived Experiences of Afro-Latin@ Religiosity / Luis Barrios
    • Discovering Myself / Un Testimonio / Josefina Baez
  • VI. Afro-Latinas
    • The Black Puerto Rican Woman in Contemporary American Society / Angela Jorge
    • Something Latino Was Up with Us / Spring Redd
    • Excerpt from Poem for My Grifa-Rican Sistah, or Broken Ends Broken Promises / Mariposa (María Teresa Fernandez)
    • Latinegras: Desired Women—Undesirable Mothers, Daughters, Sisters, and Wives / Marta I. Cruz-Janzen
    • Letter to a Friend / Nilaja Sun
    • Uncovering Mirrors: Afro-Latina Lesbian Subjects / Ana M. Lara
    • The Black Bellybutton of a Bongo / Marianela Medrano
  • VII. Public Images and (Mis)Representations
    • Notes on Eusebia Cosme and Juano Hernandez / Miriam Jimenez Roman
    • Desde el Mero Medio: Race Discrimination within the Latino Community / Carlos Flores
    • Displaying Identity: Dominicans in the Black Mosaic of Washington, D.C. / Ginetta E. B. Candelario
    • Bringing the Soul: Afros, Black Empowerment, and Lucecita BenĂ­tez / Yeidy M. Rivero
    • Can BET Make You Black? Remixing and Reshaping Latin@s on Black Entertainment Television / Ejima Baker
    • The Afro-Latino Connection: Can this group be the bridge to a broadbased Black-Hispanic alliance? / Alan Hughes and Milca Esdaille
  • VIII. Afro-Latin@s in the Hip Hop Zone
    • Ghettocentricity, Blackness, and Pan-Latinidad / Raquel Z. Rivera
    • Chicano Rap Roots: Afro-Mexico and Black-Brown Cultural Exchange / Pancho McFarland
    • The Rise and Fall of Reggaeton: From Daddy Yankee to Tego Calderon and Beyond / Wayne Marshall
    • Do Platanos Go wit’ Collard Greens? / David Lamb
    • Divas Don’t Yield / Sofia Quintero
  • IX. Living Afro-Latinidads
    • An Afro-Latina’s Quest for Inclusion / Yvette Modestin
    • Retracing Migration: From Samana to New York and Back Again / Ryan Mann-Hamilton
    • Negotiating among Invisibilities: Tales of Afro-Latinidades in the United States / Vielka Cecilia Hoy
    • We Are Black Too: Experiences of a Honduran Garifuna / Aida Lambert
    • Profile of an Afro-Latina: Black, Mexican, Both / Maria Rosario Jackson
    • Enrique Patterson: Black Cuban Intellectual in Cuban Miami / Antonio Lopez
    • Reflections about Race by a Negrito Acomplejao / Eduardo Bonilla-Silva
    • Divisible Blackness: Reflections on Heterogeneity and Racial Identity / Silvio Torres-Saillant
    • Nigger-Reecan Blues / Willie Perdomo
  • X. Afro-Latin@s: Present and Future Tenses
    • How Race Counts for Hispanic Americans / John R. Logan
    • Bleach in the Rainbow: Latino Ethnicity and Preferences for Whiteness / William A. Darity Jr., Jason Dietrich, and Darrick Hamilton
    • Brown Like Me? / Ed Morales
    • Against the Myth of Racial Harmony in Puerto Rico / Afro-Puerto Rican Testimonies Project
    • Mexican Ways, African Roots / Lisa Hoppenjans and Ted Richardson
    • Afro-Latin@s and the Latino Workplace / Tanya Kateri Hernandez
    • Racial Politics in Multiethnic America: Black and Latina/o Identities and Coalitions
    • Afro-Latinism in United States Society: A Commentary / James Jennings
  • Sources and Permissions
  • Contributors
  • Index
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