394. Paper Session: New Issues in Race and Identity

Posted in Law, Live Events, Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Social Science, United States on 2015-02-28 02:59Z by Steven

394. Paper Session: New Issues in Race and Identity

Crossing Borders: 2015 Annual Meeting
Eastern Sociological Society
Millennium Broadway Hotel
New York, New York
2015-02-26 through 2015-03-01

Sunday, 2015-03-01, 10:15-11:45 EST (Local Time)

Presider: Vilna Bashi Treitler, Baruch College, City University of New York

  • Blacks, Latinos, Jews and Foreigners are Taking Over: How Innumeracy About Groups Shapes Public Policy Charles A. Gallagher — La Salle Uinversity
  • Limited by the Color Line: How Hypodescent Affects Responses to Mixed-Race Identity Claims Casey Lorene Stockstill — University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Siblings: the Overlooked Agents of Racial Socialization of Black/White Biracial Youth Monique Porow — Rutgers University
  • The Mulata Identity: Race, Gender, and Nation Nicole Barreto Hindert — George Mason University
  • Resurrecting Slavery: Temporal Borders, Causal Logics and Anti-racism in France Crystal Fleming — State University of New York at Stony Brook

For more information, click here.

Tags: , , , , , ,

235. Paper Session: Racial Dynamics of Dating & Marriage

Posted in Live Events, Papers/Presentations, Social Science, United States on 2015-02-27 01:56Z by Steven

235. Paper Session: Racial Dynamics of Dating & Marriage

Crossing Borders: 2015 Annual Meeting
Eastern Sociological Society
Millennium Broadway Hotel
New York, New York
2015-02-26 through 2015-03-01

Saturday, 2015-02-28, 08:30-10:30 EST (Local Time)

Presider: Erica Chito-Childs, City University of New York – Hunter College

  • The Role of Race in Dating Among Americans: How “Whiteness” Influences Perception of Interracial Relationships Jennifer Dejesus — Pace University, Andrea Voyer — Pace University
    University
  • Marriage Patterns among Multiracial Americans: Upward Amalgamation, Downward Amalgamation, Matching and Hyper-Matching Gregory Eirich — Columbia University, Gracelyn Bateman — Mindshare
  • Disappearing Difference, or The Illegibility of Multiracials in Interracial Relationships Melinda Mills — Castleton State College
  • Does Intermarriage Blur Boundaries? The Transformation of Racial and Ethnic Boundaries among Interracially and Inter-ethnically Married Filipino Americans and their Families Brenda Gambol — The Graduate Center, City University of New York
  • They Don’t Want to Date Any Dark People Chong-suk Han — Middlebury College

For more information, click here.

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

279. Invited Thematic Session: Crossing Interracial Borders

Posted in Brazil, Caribbean/Latin America, Live Events, Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Social Science, United States on 2015-02-27 01:35Z by Steven

279. Invited Thematic Session: Crossing Interracial Borders

Crossing Borders: 2015 Annual Meeting
Eastern Sociological Society
Millennium Broadway Hotel
New York, New York
2015-02-26 through 2015-03-01

Saturday, 2015-02-28, 12:00-13:30 EST (Local Time)

Organizer: Erica Chito-Childs, City University of New York – Hunter College

Presider: Erica Chito-Childs, City University of New York – Hunter College

  • Transracial Kin-scription: The Silent Engine of Racial Change? Kimberly McClain DaCosta — New York University
  • Emerging Patterns of Interracial Marriage and Immigrant Integration in the United States Daniel Lichter — Cornell University
  • Interracial Marriage in the U.S. and Brazil: Racial Boundaries in Comparative Perspective Chinyere Osuji — Rutgers University
  • A Global Look at Attitudes Towards “Mixed” Marriage Erica Chito-Childs — City University of New York – Hunter College

Discussant: Amy Steinbugler, Dickinson College

For more information, click here.

Tags: , , , , ,

Symposium S-H09: Understanding the Dynamics of Beliefs in Genetic and Racial Essences

Posted in Health/Medicine/Genetics, Identity Development/Psychology, Live Events, Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Social Science, United States on 2015-02-26 20:34Z by Steven

Symposium S-H09: Understanding the Dynamics of Beliefs in Genetic and Racial Essences

The Society for Personality and Social Psychology
16th Annual Convention
Long Beach Convention & Entertainment Center
Long Beach, California
2015-02-26 through 2015-02-28

Saturday, 2015-02-28, 15:30-16:45 PST (Local Time)
Room 202ABC
Chair:

Franki Kung
University of Waterloo

Co-Chair:

Melody Chao
Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

The symposium presents research that transcends the static, and often negative, conceptualization of essentialism. Four papers present a dynamic view of essentialist beliefs and show that beliefs in genetic or racial essences could lead to both positive and negative social psychological outcomes in interpersonal, intergroup and clinical contexts.

The Implications of Cultural Essentialism on Interpersonal Conflicts in Inter- vs. Intracultural Contexts

Franki Yk Hei Kung
University of Waterloo

Melody M. Chao
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Donna Yao
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Ho-ying Fu
City University of Hong Kong

Although psychological essentialism has been shown to influence a wide range of psychological processes in intergroup contexts, little is known about its impact on managing interpersonal conflicts in intracultural and intercultural settings. The current research aims to address this question. Findings across three studies (N=387) revealed that individuals who endorse essentialist beliefs less were more likely to trust their interaction partner in intercultural than intracultural conflict situations. This increased trusting relationship, in turn, could lead to more integration of ideas and both better individual and joint outcomes in face-to-face dyadic intercultural negotiations. The current study unveils when and how essentialist beliefs influence individuals’ ability to function effectively in intercultural and intercultural contexts. Implications of the findings in advancing our understanding of intercultural competence will be discussed.

To be Essentialist or Not: The Positive and Negative Ramifications of Race Essentialism for Multiracial Individuals

Kristin Pauker
University of Hawaii

Chanel Meyers
University of Hawaii

Jon Freeman
New York University

Research documents the many negative implications of race essentialism for intergroup relations, ranging from increased stereotyping to less motivation to cross racial boundaries. This research has primarily examined such negative implications from the perspective of White perceivers. Two studies (N=138) explored positive and negative ramifications of adopting essentialist beliefs about race for racial minorities, specifically multiracial individuals. We hypothesized that adopting less essentialist beliefs may aid multiracial individuals in flexibly adopting the framework of multiple identities with positive consequences for their face memory, but may result in negative consequences for their racial identity. Results indicated that multiracial individuals with less essentialist views could readily adopt the lens of primed monoracial identities and exhibited preferential memory for identity-prime relevant faces. However, when it came to their own racial identification, more essentialist views appeared to be beneficial—as it was associated with higher identity integration and greater pride in a multiracial identity.

Folk Beliefs about Genetic Variation Predict Avoidance of Biracial Individuals

Jason E. Plaks
University of Toronto

Sonia K. Kang
University of Toronto

Alison L. Chasteen
University of Toronto

Jessica D. Remedios
Tufts University

Laypeople’s estimates of the amount of genetic overlap between vs. within racial groups vary widely. While some believe that different races are genetically similar, others believe that different races share little genetic material. These studies examine how beliefs about genetic overlap affect neural and behavioral reactions to racially-ambiguous and biracial targets. In Study 1, we found that the low overlap perspective predicts a stronger neural avoidance response to biracial compared to Black or White targets. In Study 2, we manipulated genetic overlap beliefs and found that participants in the low overlap condition explicitly rated biracial targets more negatively than Black targets. In Study 3, this difference extended to distancing behavior: Low overlap perceivers sat further away when expecting to meet a biracial person than when expecting to meet a Black person. These data suggest that a priori assumptions about human genetic variation guide perceivers’ reactions to racially-ambiguous individuals.

Genetic Attributions Underlie People’s Attitudes Towards Criminal Responsibility and Eugenics

Steven J. Heine
Department of Psychology
University of British Columbia

Benjamin Y. Cheung
Department of Psychology
University of British Columbia

People are essentialist thinkers – they are attracted to the idea that hidden essences make things as they are. When most people encounter genetic concepts they think of these as essences, and they then think about related phenomena as immutable, determined, homogenous and discrete, and natural. I will discuss experimental research that demonstrates how encounters with information about genetic causes leads people to view two highly politicized topics in quite different terms. Specifically, in contrast to those who were exposed to arguments about experiential causes, people who encountered genetic attributions of violent behavior were more open to defenses appealing to mitigated criminal responsibility, and genetic attributions of intelligence lead people to be more supportive of eugenic policies.

For more information click here and go to page 125.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The Fluidity of Race: “Passing” in the United States, 1880-1940

Posted in Census/Demographics, Economics, Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Passing, United States on 2015-01-20 20:05Z by Steven

The Fluidity of Race: “Passing” in the United States, 1880-1940

The National Bureau of Economic Research
NBER Working Paper No. 20828
January 2015
76 pages
DOI: 10.3386/w20828

Emily Nix
Department of Economics
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Nancy Qian, Associate Professor of Economics
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

This paper quantifies the extent to which individuals experience changes in reported racial identity in the historical U.S. context. Using the full population of historical Censuses for 1880-1940, we document that over 19% of black males “passed” for white at some point during their lifetime, around 10% of whom later “reverse-passed” to being black; passing was accompanied by geographic relocation to communities with a higher percentage of whites and occurred the most in Northern states. The evidence suggests that passing was positively associated with better political-economic and social opportunities for whites relative to blacks. As such, endogenous race is likely to be a quantitatively important phenomenon.

Read or purchase the paper here.

Tags: , , , ,

Beyond Zebra – presented at National Association of Social Workers 2014 National Conference

Posted in Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Social Science, Social Work on 2015-01-19 01:16Z by Steven

Beyond Zebra – presented at National Association of Social Workers 2014 National Conference

Slideshare
2014-07-31

Carlos Hoyt

Read the presentation transcript here.

Tags: ,

Sense About Genetic Ancestry Testing

Posted in Health/Medicine/Genetics, Media Archive, Papers/Presentations on 2015-01-05 02:10Z by Steven

Sense About Genetic Ancestry Testing

Sense About Science: Science and Evidence in the Hands of the Public
London, United Kingdom
2013-03-07
3 pages

Tabitha Innocent

Many companies now offer to tell you about your ancestors from a DNA test. Adverts for these tests can give the impression that your results are unique and that the tests will tell you about your specific personal history, but the very same history that you receive could equally be given to thousands of other people. Conversely, the results from your DNA tests could be matched with all sorts of different stories to the one you are given: you cannot look at DNA and read it like a book or a map of a journey. This guide will help explain why, and what it is exactly that genetic ancestry companies are offering.

There are now many companies which offer to tell you about your ancestors from a DNA test. You send off a sample of your DNA and £100–£200 ($150–300), and in return you receive a report. The results of these tests may find a connection with a well-known historical figure. They might tell you whether you are descended from groups such as Vikings or Zulus, where your ancient relatives came from or when they migrated.

Adverts for these tests give the impression that your results are unique and that the tests will tell you about your specific personal history. But the very same history that you receive could equally be given to thousands of other people. Conversely, the results from your DNA tests could be matched with all sorts of different stories to the one you are given.

It is well known that horoscopes use vague statements which recipients think are more tailored than they really are (referred to as the ‘Forer effect’). Genetic ancestry tests do a similar thing, and many exaggerate far beyond the available evidence about human origins. You cannot look at DNA and read it like a book or a map of a journey. For the most part these tests cannot tell you the things they claim to – they are little more than genetic astrology…

Read the entire paper here.

Tags: , , ,

Racial Passing and the Raj

Posted in Asian Diaspora, History, Live Events, Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Passing on 2015-01-02 03:10Z by Steven

Racial Passing and the Raj

American Historical Association
129th Annual Meeting
New York, New York
2015-01-02 through 2015-01-05

Saturday, 2015-01-03, 15:10 EST (Local Time)
Park Suite 3 (Sheraton New York)

Uther Charlton-Stevens
Volgograd State University, Volgograd, Russia

Racial passing is a subject that has attracted much attention in the historiography of the Americas, as well as other settings such as South Africa. It has hitherto been overlooked in the South Asian context. Mixed race groups in South Asia have until recently also been largely neglected by historians, while attracting more attention from geographers and anthropologists.

Mixed race groups such as Anglo-Indians have been perceived as marginal, despite existing on the fault line of constructed racial difference. In many ways they embody the colonial connection and the transnational most tangibly, and through their mere presence make problematic the binary of ruler and ruled, colonizer and colonized. The British perceived not only those of mixed race but also poor whites of Indian domicile as undermining their racial prestige in the eyes of their Indian subjects, treating the two groups as essentially one class. However the socio-racial and class-based hierarchies which the British sought to erect and to police motivated widespread attempts at transgression, resulting in widespread passing in hopes of upward mobility along the spectrum from Indian Christians to mixed-race Anglo-Indians to supposedly unmixed Domiciled Europeans and even into the ranks of the British population, such as those who came out to take senior positions on the railways. This world of racial mixing and transgression was one which the British found unsettling and which later Indian Hindu nationalists, concerned with concepts of purity, also had reasons to overlook. Exploring racial passing across the boundaries erected by the Raj should yield us far greater insight into the nature of race in late colonial India and the lasting impact of the imperial presence.

Tags: , , ,

Identity Politics in the 21st Century: The Racial Labeling Decisions of Multiracial Americans

Posted in Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Politics/Public Policy, Social Science, United States on 2014-11-01 21:03Z by Steven

Identity Politics in the 21st Century: The Racial Labeling Decisions of Multiracial Americans

Center for the Study of American Politics
Yale University
2014-10-01
57 pages

Lauren Davenport, Assistant Professor of Political Science
Stanford University

Racial attachments are understood to be socially constructed, endogenous to traits including gender, socioeconomic status, and religion. Yet we know surprisingly little about how such traits shape the racial labels chosen by people of interracial parentage, a group that has multiple racial identification options. Examining national surveys of over 37,000 respondents of Latino-White, Asian-White, and Black-White parentage, this paper disentangles how prominent social identities help determine the racial labels that the children of interracial unions self-select. Findings show that across interracial subgroups and net of all other influences, higher incomes and Jewish identity are highly predictive of a whiter self-identification, while worshiping a religion more commonly associated with racial minorities is predictive of a darker identification. However, gender is the single biggest predictor of racial identification, with women markedly more likely to identify as multiracial than comparable men. Taken together, these findings help us better understand the contextual nature of race and reinforce the importance of assessing how social identities help construct racial meanings in contemporary U.S. politics and society.

“It is official: Barack Obama is the nation’s first black president.”

So declared The New York Times, in response to President Obama’s checking of “Black” as his race on the 2010 Census (Roberts and Baker 2 April 2010). The race that Obama marked was befitting of The Times’ dramatic announcement, because it was one that no president had ever marked before. But the act was more than just the filling of a box: it was also a conscious decision to identify with a particular group. Given Obama’s White-Black parentage, he could theoretically identify as Black only, White only, both White and Black, or “Some Other Race.” In light of these choices, Obama’s decision to officially classify himself as singularly Black was viewed as definitive, settling the public debate over the significance of his biracial ancestry and where he fit within the racial divide.

Like President Obama, millions of Americans have multiple options when asked to racially identify themselves on government forms, surveys, and college applications. While their identification decisions typically do not make headlines, these individuals also engage in a complex identification construction process, one that in the aggregate has important implications for the future of race relations in the United States.

Social scientists have long known that race is endogenous to historical and social dynamics and can be redefined through political processes (Nobles 2000; Omi and Winant 1994; Brubaker 2009). The meanings we attach to race are shaped by its intersection with a host of other social identities. Notably, gender, socioeconomic status, and religion each impart a distinctly racial frame of reference on individuals, and can reinforce or weaken racial attachments (Shapiro 2004; Saperstein and Penner 2012; Chong 1998; Wilson 1980).

While there is a profound relationship between these social identities and the significance of racial identities, less is known about the effect of such social identities on the particular racial labels Americans self-select. Traditionally, racial labels were treated as an ascribed characteristic in U.S. politics, with group membership easily defined, devoid of choice, limited to the shared race of one’s parents or structured by legal and social norms such as hypodescent (Telles and Sue 2009; Williams 2006; (Snipp 2003).

But the changing of the U.S. Census in 2000 to permit multiple-race classification illustrates that racial labels are no longer a mutually exclusive construct in American politics and culture. This change is especially relevant for individuals of mixed-race parentage, who have a range of racial labels with which they may reasonably identify.

How do gender, socioeconomic status, and religion explain racial labeling outcomes? I investigate this question by examining the racial identification decisions among the growing number of Americans of mixed-race parentage. Assessing the choices made by this population|a group for whom identification is uniquely complex|helps us better understand how central, nonracial identities constrain and inform racial labels in contemporary U.S. society. Drawing upon literatures in sociology, political science, and social psychology, I argue that mixed-race individuals negotiate their race based on their interpersonal encounters, neighborhoods, and places of worship, classifying themselves in relation to their peers and adopting the label deemed most socially acceptable in their environment.

While a substantial literature has examined the labeling patterns of multiracial respondents, prior research has primarily emphasized the importance of family, peers, and environmental racial context and has given little attention to the roles that gender, social class, and religion play in shaping identification. The main reason for this neglect, I will argue, has been methodological, as most surveys of the mixed-race population have too-small multiracial samples or do not include important sociodemographic measures.

In order to disentangle the independent effects of social identities and other demographic factors on racial construction, I leverage national surveys of over 37,000 college students of interracial Asian-White, Latino-White, and Black-White parentage. With the inclusion of important variables lacking from other studies, the data-rich survey I examine extends recent literature on multiracialism in several notable ways. I thoroughly break down the impact of parents’ marital status, household income, and religion on respondent self-labeling, and to more fully comprehend how socioeconomic context shapes identification, I append census sociodemographic measures for median household income at the zip code level. The study’s very large multiracial sample also enables me to empirically assess the determinants of singular White identification, a racial label about which we currently understand relatively little, but that has major implications for the future American racial structure (Gans 2012; Cross 2002). More generally, I examine how young adults of mixed-race parentage are choosing to assert their identification in the 21st century, and the degree to which the legacy of hypodescent continues to in influence their identification choices.

Importantly, this research also contributes to our understanding of racial identification construction among mixed-race Latinos, a group that is typically excluded from multiracialism studies due to data constraints. Because most surveys employ a two-question approach wherein Hispanic origins are distinguished from race, it is often impossible to disentangle respondents of mixed Latino/non-Latino parentage from respondents who have two Latino parents and identify their ethnicity as Hispanic, but identify their race as either White, Black, Asian, or “Other.” Given that survey question format precludes scholars from making these distinctions, multiracialism scholars often (and understandably) refrain from analyzing Latinos in their studies. Yet the exclusion of Latinos in work on mixed-race identification remains a significant limitation, given the vast number of multiracial-Latino Americans; by far the most frequent interracial marriage pairings are between Whites and Latinos, and the rapid growth rate of the Latino population can be attributed in part to the rising number of children born to Latino-White couples (Wang 2012). Fortunately, because the surveys I assess have a combined race and Hispanic origin question, I am able to pinpoint individuals who are explicitly of Hispanic/non-Hispanic parentage, thus heeding Harris and Sim’s (2002) call for greater understanding of multiracial Latino identity.

By providing evidence from a large-scale sample of multiple-race respondents, this work helps clarify how racial labels are the product of gender identity, social class ties, and religious attachments. Results demonstrate how the relative flexibility or rigidity of racial boundaries are tied to cultural and psychological processes. To summarize my main findings, I show that, across respondents of Asian-White, Black-White, and Latino-White parentage, economic affluence and Jewish religious identity each are predictive of a singular White identification, whereas subscribing to other ethnic religions is predictive of a singular minority identification. But above all else, racial identification is deeply gendered: women are substantially more likely than comparable men to identify as multiracial. This gender gap is largest for individuals of Black-White parentage, suggesting that the social boundaries of racial labels are especially rigid for African American males. I explore and discuss reasons for these disparities in the paper’s conclusion.

Taken together, these results contribute a great deal to our understanding of how race is constructed in American society and politics, illustrating that racial labels are inextricably linked with social class, religion, and gender. This research emphasizes the importance of carefully disentangling the meanings attached to core social identities.

Read the entire paper here.

Tags: , ,

America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census

Posted in Census/Demographics, Latino Studies, Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, United States on 2014-08-06 19:35Z by Steven

America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census

CARRA Working Paper Series
Working Paper #2014-09
Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications
United States Census Bureau
Washington, D.C.
2014-08-04
56 pages

Carolyn A. Liebler
University of Minnesota

Sonya Rastogi
U. S. Census Bureau

Leticia E. Fernandez
U. S. Census Bureau

James M. Noon
U. S. Census Bureau

Sharon R. Ennis
U. S. Census Bureau

Race and ethnicity responses can change over time and across contexts – a component of population change not usually taken into account. To what extent do race and/or Hispanic origin responses change? Is change more common to/from some race/ethnic groups than others? Does the propensity to change responses vary by characteristics of the individual? To what extent do these changes affect researchers? We use internal Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which individuals’ responses have been linked across years. Approximately 9.8 million people (about 6 percent) in our large, non-representative linked data have a different race and/or Hispanic origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Several groups experienced considerable fluidity in racial identification: American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and multiple-race response groups, as well as Hispanics when reporting a race. In contrast, race and ethnic responses for single-race non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians were relatively consistent over the decade, as were ethnicity responses by Hispanics. People who change their race and/or Hispanic origin response(s) are doing so in a wide variety of ways, as anticipated by previous research. For example, people’s responses change from multiple races to a single race, from a single race to multiple races, from one single race to another, and some people add or drop a Hispanic response. The inflow of people to each race/Hispanic group is in many cases similar in size to the outflow from the same group, such that cross-sectional data would show a small net change. We find response changes across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with variation across groups. Researchers should consider the implications of changing race and Hispanic origin responses when conducting analyses and interpreting results.

Read the entire paper here.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,