Cultural education of mixed heritage children by single mothers: A narrative inquiry of ethnic identity development

Posted in Dissertations, Family/Parenting, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, Social Work, Women on 2011-07-29 21:38Z by Steven

Cultural education of mixed heritage children by single mothers: A narrative inquiry of ethnic identity development

University of Wyoming, Laramie
May 2011
150 pages
Publication Number: AAT 3453892
ISBN: 9781124624242

Lay-nah Blue Morris

A Dissertation submitted to the Counselor Education and Supervision Department and the University of Wyoming in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in COUNSELOR EDUCATION AND SUPERVISION

The purpose of this study was to discover how single mothers of mixed heritage children educated their children on their culture and ethnicity. Through the process of narrative inquiry, the impact this education had on the development of the cultural and ethnic identity of these children, who are now adults, was also explored. This study contributes to understanding the identity formation of mixed heritage individuals and the implications for multicultural counseling.

Table of Contents

  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication Page
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of Contents
    • Statement of Problem
    • Purpose of Study
    • Research Questions
    • Discussion of Terms
    • The Nature of Identity
    • Ethnic Identity Development Models
    • Influential Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development
    • Recognizing Racial Difference
    • Formation of Family Identity
    • Myths of Multiracial People
    • Transmission of Culture
    • How Families Transmit Culture and How This Impacts Ethnic Identity
    • Summary
    • Conceptual Framework
    • Nature of Narrative Inquiry
    • Role of the Researcher
    • Research Questions
    • Participants
    • Data Sources
    • Interview Guide
    • Data Collection
    • Data Analysis
    • Research Ethics
    • Trustworthiness
    • Conclusion
    • Robert
    • Janet
    • Interlude
    • Ama
    • Neesa
    • Interlude
    • Michael
    • Gwen
    • Interlude
    • Summary
    • Connection to Prior Research
    • Implications for Best Practices of Counselors
    • Implications for Counselor Education
    • Implications for Social Justice
    • Limitations
    • Future Research
    • IRBProposal
    • Informed Consent
    • Investigator Statement
    • Email to Participants

Purchase the dissertation here.

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Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions

Posted in Books, Caribbean/Latin America, History, Media Archive, Monographs, Slavery on 2011-07-29 21:15Z by Steven

Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions

Harvard University Press
ISBN 9780674035911
February 2010
352 pages
5-1/2 x 8-1/4 inches, 21 halftones, 2 maps

Jane G. Landers, Gertrude Conaway Vanderbilt Professor of History
Vanderbilt University

2011 Rembert Patrick Award, Florida Historical Society

Sailing the tide of a tumultuous era of Atlantic revolutions, a remarkable group of African-born and African-descended individuals transformed themselves from slaves into active agents of their lives and times. Big Prince Whitten, the black Seminole Abraham, and General Georges Biassou were “Atlantic creoles,” Africans who found their way to freedom by actively engaging in the most important political events of their day. These men and women of diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were fluent in multiple languages and familiar with African, American, and European cultures, migrated across the new world’s imperial boundaries in search of freedom and a safe haven. Yet, until now, their extraordinary lives and exploits have been hidden from posterity.
Through prodigious archival research, Jane Landers radically alters our vision of the breadth and extent of the Age of Revolution, and our understanding of its actors. Whereas Africans in the Atlantic world are traditionally seen as destined for the slave market and plantation labor, Landers reconstructs the lives of unique individuals who managed to move purposefully through French, Spanish, and English colonies, and through Indian territory, in the unstable century between 1750 and 1850. Mobile and adaptive, they shifted allegiances and identities depending on which political leader or program offered the greatest possibility for freedom. Whether fighting for the King of Kongo, England, France, or Spain, or for the Muskogee and Seminole chiefs, their thirst for freedom helped to shape the course of the Atlantic revolutions and to enrich the history of revolutionary lives in all times.

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Racial Taxonomy in Genomics

Posted in Articles, Health/Medicine/Genetics, Literary/Artistic Criticism, Media Archive, Social Science on 2011-07-29 04:45Z by Steven

Racial Taxonomy in Genomics

Social Science & Medicine
Volume 73, Issue 7, October 2011
pages 1019–1027
DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.07.003

Catherine Bliss, Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow, Race and Science Studies
Department of Africana Studies
Brown University

This article examines the reflexive, biosocial nature of genomic meaning making around race, drawing on discourse analysis of 732 articles on genomics and race published from the years 1986 to 2010, in-depth interviews with 36 of the world’s most elite genomics researchers, interviews with 15 critics, policymakers, and trainees involved in debates over race, and participant observation at a core genotyping facility that specializes in ancestry estimation. I reveal how biomedical researchers identify with, value, and make sense of the taxonomies they construct. My analysis goes beyond a consideration of instrumental rationales to analyze the experiential and political motivations that shape how researchers get involved in racial ethical dilemmas. I theorize taxonomic practice as a reflexive form of biosociality, a conscious shaping of social notions about biology and race to produce a future that researchers themselves want to live in. I demonstrate how reflexive biosociality paradoxically leads researchers to advance social explanations for race while investing in genomics as a solution to racial quandaries.

Read or purchase the article here.

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Environmental Influences on the Development of Female College Students Who Identify as Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual

Posted in Articles, Campus Life, Gay & Lesbian, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, Social Science, United States, Women on 2011-07-29 04:27Z by Steven

Environmental Influences on the Development of Female College Students Who Identify as Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual

Journal of College Student Development
Volume 52, Number 4 (July/August 2011)
pages 440-455
E-ISSN: 1543-3382 Print ISSN: 0897-5264

Alissa R. King, Instructor in Social Sciences
Iowa Central Community College

Using Renn’s (2000, 2004) ecology of college student development model as a theoretical framework, I report and discuss the findings of my study involving 6 female college students who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual. I describe how these findings validate Renn’s model, specifically discussing how the campus environment influenced the students’ identity development in relation to three themes that emerged from my study: trying on, negotiating self, and finding fit. Finally, I discuss the implications of the results of my study for student affairs practice.

Read or purchase the article here.

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Behavioral Health in Multiracial Adolescents: The Role of Hispanic/Latino Ethnicity

Posted in Articles, Identity Development/Psychology, Latino Studies, Media Archive, United States on 2011-07-29 03:31Z by Steven

Behavioral Health in Multiracial Adolescents: The Role of Hispanic/Latino Ethnicity

Public Health Reports
Volume 121 (March–April 2006)
pages 169-174

Arthur L. Whaley
Hogg Foundation for Mental Health
University of Texas, Austin

Kimberly Francis
Hogg Foundation for Mental Health
University of Texas, Austin


Objectives. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine whether adolescents who self-identify as multiracial have more adverse health behaviors than their monoracial counterparts, and (2) to examine whether the health behaviors of adolescents who are multiracial and Hispanic are more similar to those who identify as monoracial Hispanic or those who are multiracial and non-Hispanic.

Methods. Secondary analyses of data in a subsample from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey of 3,704 (27.2%) adolescents who identified as Hispanic/Latino only, multiracial Hispanic, or multiracial non-Hispanic were conducted. Regression analyses were conducted using SUDAAN for the complex sampling to test for differences in health behaviors (i.e., smoking, exercise, substance abuse, and suicide risk) among the three ethnicity/race groups.

Results. Each health behavior scale yielded significant between-group differences according to ethnic/racial identity: Hispanic/Latino adolescents scored significantly lower than both multiracial groups on the measure of cigarette smoking, lower than multiracial Hispanic adolescents on the substance abuse scale, and lower than multiracial non-Hispanic adolescents on the measure of exercise. The multiracial Hispanic group was also at marginally increased risk for suicide compared to the Hispanic/Latino group.

Conclusions. The results support the hypothesis that multiracial Hispanic adolescents have more behavioral health problems than monoracial Hispanic adolescents. The second hypothesis—that multiracial Hispanic adolescents are more similar to multiracial non-Hispanic adolescents—was also supported. The implications of these findings for the classification of Hispanic adolescents in terms of ethnicity and race in relation to health behaviors are discussed.

Read the entire article here.

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Race Mixing a Religious Fraud

Posted in Media Archive, Papers/Presentations, Politics/Public Policy, Religion, United States on 2011-07-29 01:59Z by Steven

Race Mixing a Religious Fraud

circa 1930-1960s
8 pages
Source: Digital Collections of the University of Southern Mississippi Libraries
USM Identifier: mus-mcc033

D. B. Red, (Author of the pamphlet, A Corrupt Tree Bringeth Forth Evil Fruit)

From the McCain (William D.) Pamphlet Collection; D. B. Red states that God implemented segregation after the flood and enforced it all through the Old Testament. He quotes the Bible to support his belief that segregation of races was ordained by God and that race-mixing is an instrument of the Devil. He also quotes Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln to support his view that racial integration is undesirable. Red also contends that religious leaders who support integration have been duped by an influx of Communist rhetoric that seeks to undermine the social structure of the United States.

Race Mixing A Religious Fraud

Race mixing not only disregards the age-long experience of man and constitutional guarantees, but as it is now taught, is a religious fraud. Many religious leaders have asked the Federal Government to reach over the heads of the states into homes to usurp the God-given right and duty of parents to give their children the benefit of the most wholesome surroundings in public schools. Approval is given to Block Busting integration which divides the value of residential property by two or three, and exposes people to all of the annoyance and dangers of slum and crime areas.

The indifference of church leaders to the fate of the victims of race mixing reminds this scribe of the hit and run drivers who never change their ways or look back at their victims. Some are worse than others but all of the larger denominations are pushing us down the Devil’s highway of racial integration and on toward national perdition.



God Introduces Multiple Races and Segregation

While the virgin earth spread her beauty and bounty in all directions, great evils arose among men, who reveled in sin and so vexed the Creator that He almost destroyed mankind. As He again sent man forth with the hope of producing much more righteous conditions, He introduced the multiple race plan. Have age-long results justified the wisdom of God as displayed in this crisis? Or has time justified the wisdom of those who have long ignored this plan and spread a blanket of perpetual blight and mixed races over much of the earth?

Every faculty of man as he was originally created is capable of both good and evil. Frightful evils are entagled with the desire for a happy future existence. Evil also arises from a loyalty to your own kind and an aversion to other kinds. Should we denounce these things and reject the wisdom of the Creator? Or should we seek to better understand His wisdom?

The efforts of religious leaders to lead and force men to accept racial integration are surprising, and become even more so when the communist attitude is known. In 1913, a communist living in England suggested the agitation of the race problem in the United States of America as a trouble-maker. Comrade Lenin said, “We will find our most fertile field for the infiltration of Marxism within the field of religion, because religious people are the most gullible and will accept almost anything if it is couched in religious terminology.” Soon the viper of racial integration was brought forth in robes of righteousness, and religious leaders have abundantly justified this statement of Lenin as to their gullibility. They freely misuse or ignore scripture in efforts to fit scriptural robes on this ancient abomination. It seems safe to assume that if God did err by the introduction of the multiple race plan, He would surely have been able to see it and would have at least relaxed in His demands for the adherence to this plan. The division of the land and the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel both tended to maintain racial divisions. The call of Abraham produced a racial subdivision and rigid segregation was used to preserve it. We find that God has always had to depend on minorities to carry His message. Perhaps He was wisely preparing in advance for this.

God Deals With Mixed People

There were natural and special penalties for integration. The commandments of Moses and Joshua clearly forbade mixing with the descendants of Ham. In strong, figurative language Joshua foretold the frightful price of disobedience- Quote Joshua 23:13: “They shall be snares and traps unto you and scourges in your sides, and thorns in your eyes, until ye perish from off this good land which the Lord your God hath given you.” In Ezra, chapters 9 and 10, and Nehemiah, chapters 9 through 13, we find that on discovery of mixed marriages a systematic check was made and a considerable number were required to give up their strange wives with any children that they may have had. “Also they separated from Israel all of the mixed multitude.” This was a clear-cut case of a special penalty. Others seem to have suffered a combination of penalties. In Genesis 26: 34-35 we find that Esau first took two Hittite wives “which were a grief of mind to Isaac and Rebecca.” In Obadiah 18 we find, “There shall not be any remaining of the house of Esau.” This came to pass centuries ago. Concerning Israel, Hosea said in 7:8-9, “Ephraim, he hath mixed himself among the people . . . Strangers hath devoured his strength and he knoweth it not.”…

…Who Plays the Sucker

In the time of Christ gambling was hoary with age. National bondage and individual slavery were great evils. Neither of these are condemned in the Bible. They are generally conceded to be evil. Race-mixing is not only often and severely condemned in the Bible, but is an age-long and incurable curse of the first magnitude. Of all the millions and billions of people who have borne the curse of blended blood and jumbled humanity, the mixers will only speak of the situation in Hawaii where they are said to have an easy fluid mixture of the races. They fail to note that communist influence has long been strong in the islands and that this fluid situation is a much sought goal of communism, since it facilitates the easy formation of communist cells, and leaves no coherent group to oppose them. Are these mixers as ignorant as they seem, or are they only presuming on the ignorance of others?…

Read the entire pamphlet here.

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GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany

Posted in Books, Europe, History, Media Archive, Monographs, Politics/Public Policy, Social Science, United States on 2011-07-29 01:39Z by Steven

GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany

University of North Carolina Press
December 2001
360 pages
6.125 x 9.25, 13 photos, 1 map, notes, bibl., index
Paper ISBN  978-0-8078-5375-7

Maria Höhn, Professor of History
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York

With the outbreak of the Korean War, the poor, rural West German state of Rhineland-Palatinate became home to some of the largest American military installations outside the United States. In GIs and Frauleins, Maria Hohn offers a rich social history of this German-American encounter and provides new insights into how West Germans negotiated their transition from National Socialism to a consumer democracy during the 1950s.

Focusing on the conservative reaction to the American military presence, Hohn shows that Germany’s Christian Democrats, though eager to be allied politically and militarily with the United States, were appalled by the apparent Americanization of daily life and the decline in morality that accompanied the troops to the provinces. Conservatives condemned the jazz clubs and striptease parlors that Holocaust survivors from Eastern Europe opened to cater to the troops, and they expressed scorn toward the German women who eagerly pursued white and black American GIs. While most Germans rejected the conservative effort to punish as prostitutes all women who associated with American GIs, they vilified the sexual relationships between African American men and German women. Hohn demonstrates that German anxieties over widespread Americanization were always debates about proper gender norms and racial boundaries, and that while the American military brought democracy with them to Germany, it also brought Jim Crow.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • 1 “… And Then the Americans Came Again”
  • 2 Living with the New Neighbors
  • 3 When Jim Crow Came to the German Heimat
  • 4 Heimat in Turmoil
  • 5 Controlling the “Veronikas” and “Soldiers’ Brides”
  • 6 Keeping America at Bay
  • 7 Punishing the “Veronikas”
  • 8 The Kaiserslautern Steinstrasse Affair
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Index


In October 1952, the German Bundestag declared a large stretch of Rhineland-Palatinate—a poor, rural state in the southwest of Germany—to be a moral disaster area.  The legislators resorted to this dramatic step because the buildup of American military personnel in West Germany in the wake of the Korean War had allegedly wrecked havoc in the provinces. The American troop deployment, they complained, instead of creating a bulwark against Soviet expansionism, had brought striptease parlors, prostitution, common-law marriages, and unprecedented levels of illegitimacy. The Christian Democratic legislators, who dominated the debate, were equally distressed to report that in one small town alone, 343 German women were neglecting their children because they were in the employ of the American occupation power. The counties of Birkenfeld and Kaiserslautern, home to the garrison communities Baumholder and Kaiserslautern, were identified as the key trouble spots. Convinced that the American-induced economic boom had rendered the rural population oblivious to the moral emergency, the conservative Christian Democrats demanded federal intervention. With great dismay, the Bundestag resolved that West Germany’s military rearmament underway in Rhineland-Palatinate needed to be accompanied by a moral rearmament of the state’s population.

Discovering this anxious Bundestag debate during the preliminary stages of my research significantly changed the direction of this book. When I first began my project on the American military in Rhineland-Palatinate, I set out to explore how West Germans had negotiated their transition from Nazism into consumer democracy during the 1950s. I had chosen my topic because I speculated that the extensive presence of American military personnel and their injection of the “American way of life” would produce a rich collection of sources to comment on those crucial founding years of the Federal Republic. My exploration of the German-American encounter was to provide insights into how economic, social, and cultural changes after 1945 played out in the everyday life of people. How did Germans, after the experience of Nazism, manage to establish a successful democracy in West Germany? Moreover, I hoped that the German-American encounter would reveal how Germans assessed the transformations in their lives. Would they agree with those historians who dismiss “Americanization” as an explanatory model by insisting that the transformation of German society after 1945 was part of a larger process of modernization that had been long underway and was merely disrupted by World War II and the postwar suffering? What would Germans living in close proximity to the American military bases have to say to the Westernization scholars who do not ignore America’s impact on postwar Germany but nonetheless stress that the Bonn Republic succeeded because West Germany’s political and cultural élites abandoned their resistance to the “Western” liberal tradition?…

…By exploring local reactions to the conservative project, I show that the moral rearmament of German society is only one aspect, albeit an important one, of the 1950s. By the second part of the decade, conservative observers in Rhineland-Palatinate provided exasperated accounts of their failure to keep the population from eagerly embracing the prosperity and social mobility that the American-induced economic boom entailed. Their accounts also bemoan the fact that the strict morality that the deeply conservative Christian Democratic state and federal governments were trying to enforce through the Christian welfare agencies, the police, and the courts did not play well in the provinces. Most Germans were unwilling to return to the rigid pre-Weimar sexual norms that conservatives wanted to reimpose. The unprecedented prosperity of the Korea Boom convinced all too many that the era of deprivation and self-sacrifice was over; indeed, the time had come to “live for once.” In light of their experience with Nazism, many Germans also found the conservative program intrusive and inappropriate for the new democracy. Consequently, the population rejected the conservative effort to stigmatize and punish as prostitutes all women who associated with American GIs. Notwithstanding the concerted efforts of the chruches and of state and federal ministries, even in the deepest provinces, attitudes toward premarital sexuality and women’s sexual expressiveness outside of marriage relaxed considerably by the later part of the decade.

However, this greater tolerance in sexual matters tells only part of the story. Germans negotiated this overall relaxation of sexual mores by vilifying as unacceptable the sexual relationships between African American men and German women. When Germans, in both East and West, read about the American garrison communities during the 1950s, the focus was increasingly on the “many” black GIs who met “sexually unrestrained” women in the bars that Eastern European Jews made available to them. The prostitution records of Baumholder and the press coverage of the garrison communities reveal that attitudes toward such relationships hardened considerably, especially after Germany regained sovereignty in 1955.

Historians of postwar Germany have only recently begun to explore how racial hierarchies continued to inform notions of German identity. Exciting new scholarship on German reactions to American popular culture and German policies toward the children born of German mothers and African American fathers make important contributions to the field. That scholarship also shows that it would be too simple to assume a straightforward continuity from Nazi racism to racial attitudes in the 1950s. A process of negotiation was at work as liberal policy makers, influenced by social science research in the United States, distanced themselves from the biologically based racial hierarchies of the past. While the language of eugenics disappeared, this did not mean that racial hierarchies ceased to matter. German policy makers, for example, drew on this psychologically based language of difference to condemn jazz and rock and roll for undermining proper class, race, and gender boundaries.

My book contributes to this work by expanding the exploration of German racial attitudes beyond those of politicians and policy makers to include such debates at the grassroots level. The fact that millions of black GIs have spent time in Germany since 1945 makes it clear that German racial debates after 1945 did not take place in a vacuum. Because of the national attention the garrison communities received throughout the 1950s—not just in Germany’s tabloid press—these debates on race also did not remain just local affairs but engaged the country as a whole.

We know from Heide Fehrenbach’s important work that during the late 1940s and the 1950s the German liberal discourse on race shifted from a preoccupation with Jews to an overwhelming concern with blacks. However, in the garrison towns, that shift is less manifest for a number of reasons. Most importantly, debates on race are not driven by the self-conscious efforts of national policy makers to overcome the shameful Nazi past. Just the same, despite the murderous rage of the Nazi regime, Jews were not “absent” from German communities or German consciousness during the 1950s. Germans in these communities encountered Eastern European Jews and American blacks simultaneously and on a daily basis. Consequently, German debates on race were marked by the coexistence of separate but also overlapping discourses on “racial others.”

This study is also a first attempt to argue that German racial attitudes after 1945 can be understood only if they are examined in light of their face-to-face interaction with those of the American military. Black GIs, and not just those from the Jim Crow South, experienced in Germany a tolerance and acceptance unknown to them in their own country. Their status, first as conquerors and then as occupation soldiers, made possible unprecedented encounters with white Germans. In My American Journey, General Colin Powell gave voice to that experience when he recalled his service in Germany in 1958: “[For] black GIs, especially those out of the South, Germany was a breath of freedom—they could go where they wanted, eat where they wanted, and date whom they wanted, just like other people. The dollar was strong, the beer good, and the German people friendly, since we were all that stood between them and the Red hordes. War, at least the Cold War in Germany, was not hell.” Yet the record also shows that side-by-side with this tolerance existed a profound unease and often even resentment over the presence of black GIs. Nowhere were the limits of German racial tolerance more forcefully expressed than in the condemnation evoked by the relationships between black GIs and white German women.

Observing the deep reluctance, if not outright opposition, in the American military toward the relationships between German women and black American soldiers convinced many Germans, and not just conservatives, that their own racial prejudices should not mark them as Nazis. Thus, when Germans during the 1950s condemned the relationships between German women and African American soldiers, they cited the model of racial segregation of their American mentor as informing their own convictions. Germans were able to do so with ease because American opposition to interracial sexuality and interracial marriage was so similar to their own pre-Nazi models of racial exclusion. Thus Germans could reject the racial excesses of Nazism while at the same time invoking racial hierarchies of exclusion that were based in timeless laws of nature and tied firmly to the Western liberal tradition…

Read the entire Introduction here.

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Where Did You Sleep Last Night? A Personal History

Posted in Autobiography, Books, Media Archive, Monographs, United States on 2011-07-29 00:55Z by Steven

Where Did You Sleep Last Night? A Personal History

Picador (an imprint of Macmillan)
May 2009
208 pages
5 1/2 x 8 1/4 inches
Paperback ISBN: 978-0-312-42939-3, ISBN10: 0-312-42939-8
Hardcover ISBN: 978-0-374-28915-7, ISBN10: 0-374-28915-8

Danzy Senna

When Danzy Senna’s parents married in 1968, they seemed poised to defy history: two beautiful young American writers from wildly divergent backgrounds—a white woman with a blue-blood Bostonian lineage and a black man, the son of a struggling single mother and an unknown father. When their marriage disintegrated eight years later, the violent, traumatic split felt all the more tragic for the hopeful symbolism it had once borne.

Decades later, Senna looks back not only at her parents’ divorce but at the histories that they had tried so hard to overcome. In the tradition of James McBride’s The Color of Water, Where Did You Sleep Last Night? is “a stunningly rendered personal heritage that mirrors the complexities of race, class, and ethnicity in the United States” (Booklist).

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