Researchers Should Understand and Adapt Race and Ethnicity Data That Change Over Time

Posted in Articles, Census/Demographics, Identity Development/Psychology, Media Archive, Social Work, United States on 2022-04-22 02:45Z by Steven

Researchers Should Understand and Adapt Race and Ethnicity Data That Change Over Time

Child Trends

Alaina Flannigan, Research Scientist II
Bethesda, Maryland

Rachel Rosenberg, Research Scientist II
Bethesda, Maryland

Alyssa Liehr, Research Scientist
Bethesda, Maryland

Reva Dalela, Research Assistant
Bethesda, Maryland

Mya’ Sanders, Senior Research Assistant
Bethesda, Maryland

Embedding race equity principles into supports provided for young people who age out of foster care can better prepare them for a successful transition into adulthood. Child welfare practitioners and policymakers must consider how race and racism affect a young person’s child welfare experience and the services and supports they receive. For example, practitioners and policymakers should understand how employment program outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, or the ways in which access to culturally competent sexual and reproductive health care varies by race/ethnicity. This focus on race equity principles ensures that all young people have access to services tailored to their needs.

For practitioners and policymakers to accurately interpret data and make decisions about programming for all racial and ethnic groups, researchers must be able to capture someone’s racial and ethnic identity alongside their outcomes. One common resource available to researchers who want to examine outcomes over time is panel, or longitudinal, data, for which the same people are repeatedly and regularly surveyed over an extended period of time. However, researchers should carefully consider how they use these data in analysis because individuals’ responses to race/ethnicity and other demographic variables may change over time. When researchers treat race/ethnicity as an unchanging variable they potentially miss important equity considerations.

Reviews of panel data show that responses to questions on racial and ethnic identity can and do change over time. While this is a fairly common occurrence in longitudinal data for respondents of all ages (adolescence through adulthood), such changes may be particularly meaningful for young people aging out of foster care. These young people’s child welfare experiences (e.g., frequent moves, lack of information about family history, placement in foster homes with parents of a different racial and ethnic identity) may leave them without the information needed to form a healthy racial and ethnic identity. During the transition to adulthood, implicit and explicit biases around racial and ethnic identity from both individuals and systems can create opportunities and barriers at key moments in life, such as pursing postsecondary education or attaining first jobs. Despite the potential fluidity of racial and ethnic identity, however, this variable is commonly treated as static and unchanging in analysis. To date, there are few resources to guide researchers in designing and conducting analyses that both honor the racial and ethnic identities of young people and maximize the reliability of the data…

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Betty Reid Soskin: The extraordinary life of the nation’s oldest park ranger

Posted in Articles, Biography, History, Media Archive, United States, Women on 2022-04-21 21:39Z by Steven

Betty Reid Soskin: The extraordinary life of the nation’s oldest park ranger

Berkeley, California

Daphne White

Betty Soskin in her living room. Photo: Daphne White

In this 2018 interview with Soskin who retired Thursday at the age of 100, the nation’s oldest park ranger said she considers herself “an absolutely ordinary extraordinary person.”

Editor’s note: This story was originally published in February 2018. We’re resharing it because Betty Reid Soskin, the nation’s oldest active park ranger, retired Thursday at the age of 100.

Betty Reid Soskin, 96, considers herself “an absolutely ordinary extraordinary person.”

Soskin has dated Jackie Robinson, co-founded Reid’s Records in Berkeley with her first husband, served as a “bag lady” (delivering cash) for the Black Panthers, and hobnobbed with the leaders of the human potential movement as a faculty wife with her second husband.

She also served in a Jim Crow segregated union hall in Richmond during World War II, experienced redlining in Berkeley when she tried to build her first house, moved to a racially-hostile Walnut Creek in the 1950s, and accidentally catapulted to fame in her 80s, as she brought her lived experience as a non-Rosie to the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park

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James Monroe Trotter

Posted in Articles, Biography, History, Media Archive on 2022-04-21 21:16Z by Steven

James Monroe Trotter

Thought Co.

Femi Lewis

James Monroe Trotter was the first Black person to be employed by the U.S. Postal Service. Public Domain


James Monroe Trotter was an educator, Civil War veteran, musical historian and Recorder of Deeds. A man of many talents, Trotter was patriotic and believed in ending racism in American society. Described as a “genteel militant,” Trotter promoted and encouraged other African Americans to work hard regardless of racism…

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How one Civil Rights activist posed as a white man in order to investigate lynchings

Posted in Articles, Audio, Biography, History, Media Archive, Passing, Social Justice, United States on 2022-04-21 20:32Z by Steven

How one Civil Rights activist posed as a white man in order to investigate lynchings

Fresh Air
National Public Radio

Dave Davies, Guest Host

White Lies author A.J. Baime tells the story of Walter White, a light-skinned Black man whose ancestors had been enslaved. For years White risked his life investigating racial violence in the South.

Listen to the story (00:42:04) and read the transcript here.

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Ethnic Positioning in Southwestern Mixed Heritage Writing

Posted in Books, Literary/Artistic Criticism, Media Archive, Monographs, United States on 2022-04-21 19:53Z by Steven

Ethnic Positioning in Southwestern Mixed Heritage Writing

Lexington Books (an imprint of Rowman & Littlefield)
April 2022
228 pages
Trim: 6½ x 9
Hardback ISBN: 978-1-7936-0790-4
eBook ISBN: 978-1-7936-0791-1

Judit Ágnes Kádár, Director of International Relations
Hungarian University of Sport Science, Budapest, Hungary

Ethnic Positioning in Southwestern Mixed Heritage Writing explores how Southwestern writers and visual artists provide an opportunity to turn a stigmatized identity into a self-conscious holder of valuable assets, cultural attitudes, and memories. The problem of mixed ethno-cultural heritage is a relevant feature of North American populations, faced by millions. Narratives on blended heritage show how mixed-race authors utilize their multiple ethnic experiences, knowledge archives, and sensibilities. They explore how individuals attempt to cope with the cognitive anxiety, stigmas, and perceptions that are intertwined in their blended ethnic heritage, family and social dynamics, and the renegotiation of their ethnic identity. The Southwest is a region riddled by Eurocentric and Colonial concepts of identity, yet at the same time highly treasured in the Frontier experiences of physical mobility and mental and spiritual journeys and transformations. Judit Ágnes Kádár argues that the process of ethnic positioning is a choice made by mixed heritage people that results in renegotiated identities, leading to more complex and engaging concepts of themselves.

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2 Multiracial Identity and the Southwest
    • 2.1 “Core and Confluence”: The Geo-Cultural Context of Mixedblood Writing
    • 2.2 From “Halfbreed” to “Crossblood”
    • 2.3 Southwestern Authors and Artists of Mixed Heritage: An Overview
  • Chapter 3: Identity Negotiation in Southwestern Mixedblood Poetry: A Complementary Scope
  • Chapter 4: “Blood Trails,” Hidden Histories
    • 4.1 The Beginning of Mixed Heritage Fictional Biographies: From Memoir to Postcolonial Storytelling
    • 4.2 Laguna Pueblo Postcolonial Life-Writing and The Followers: Southwestern Mixed Heritage Autobiographies
  • Chapter 5: Multiracial Identity and its Narrative Formulation
    • 5.1 Four Decades of Mixed-Race Writing: Altering Visions in Selected Prose Texts
    • 5.2 A Psychological Insight into Blended Heritage Identity Construction
    • 5.3 Cultural Identity Formulation in Multiracial Narratives
    • 5.4 Narrative Identity: From Object to Subject
    • 5.5 Nanabush’s “Pandora’s Box of Possibilities”: Humor in Contemporary Multiracial Writing
  • Chapter 6: Some Interesting Cognitive Patterns
    • 6.1 Grave Concerns and Nightwalkers
    • 6.2 Sharpening Sights
    • 6.3 “Restore me!”
    • 6.4 “Indigenous Shapes of Water” in Mixedblood Writing
  • Chapter 7: Conclusion
  • Bibliography
    • 8.1 Primary Sources
    • 8.2 Secondary Sources
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The Capital of Free Women: Race, Legitimacy, and Liberty in Colonial Mexico

Posted in Books, Caribbean/Latin America, History, Media Archive, Mexico, Monographs, Women on 2022-04-21 17:01Z by Steven

The Capital of Free Women: Race, Legitimacy, and Liberty in Colonial Mexico

Yale University Press
296 pages, 5 1/2 x 8 1/2
9 b/w illustrations
Hardcover ISBN: 9780300258066

Danielle Terrazas Williams, Lecturer in the School of History
University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

A restoration of the agency and influence of free African-descended women in colonial Mexico through their traces in archives

The Capital of Free Women examines how African-descended women strove for dignity in seventeenth-century Mexico. Free women in central Veracruz, sometimes just one generation removed from slavery, purchased land, ran businesses, managed intergenerational wealth, and owned slaves of African descent. Drawing from archives in Mexico, Spain, and Italy, Danielle Terrazas Williams explores the lives of African-descended women across the economic spectrum, evaluates their elite sensibilities, and challenges notions of race and class in the colonial period.

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The White Indians of Mexican Cinema

Posted in Books, Caribbean/Latin America, Communications/Media Studies, Media Archive, Mexico, Monographs on 2022-04-21 17:00Z by Steven

The White Indians of Mexican Cinema: Racial Masquerade throughout the Golden Age

State University of New York Press
April 2022
326 pages
Hardcover ISBN: 9781438488035

Mónica García Blizzard, Assistant Professor of Spanish and Portuguese
Emory University, Atlantic, Georgia

The White Indians of Mexican Cinema theorizes the development of a unique form of racial masquerade—the representation of Whiteness as Indigeneity—during the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, from the 1930s to the 1950s. Adopting a broad decolonial perspective while remaining grounded in the history of local racial categories, Mónica García Blizzard argues that this trope works to reconcile two divergent discourses about race in postrevolutionary Mexico: the government-sponsored celebration of Indigeneity and mestizaje (or the process of interracial and intercultural mixing), on the one hand, and the idealization of Whiteness, on the other. Close readings of twenty films and primary source material illustrate how Mexican cinema has mediated race, especially in relation to gender, in ways that project national specificity, but also reproduce racist tendencies with respect to beauty, desire, and protagonism that survive to this day. This sweeping survey illuminates how Golden Age films produced diverse, even contradictory messages about the place of Indigeneity in the national culture.

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This is the problem with using biracial identity as an excuse to be racially neutral. Doing so often results in ignoring both black suffering and the racist political, economic, and social structures which produce black suffering.

Posted in Excerpts/Quotes on 2022-04-21 16:58Z by Steven

This is the problem with using biracial identity as an excuse to be racially neutral. Doing so often results in ignoring both black suffering and the racist political, economic, and social structures which produce black suffering. Dak Prescott claimed that being biracial helped him in being a leader for the Dallas Cowboys because he can relate to both his black teammates and his white teammates. Yet, when it comes to the issue of kneeling during the national anthem to protest police brutality, Prescott opposed doing so. It turns out that Prescott’s views on the NFL protests are more in line with how the majority of white Americans feel about the protests, so on a very serious political matter which is black and white, Prescott is comfortably on the white side.

Dwayne Wong (Omowale), “Being Biracial Shouldn’t Be An Excuse To Be Racially Neutral,” Medium, January 26, 2020.

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From Multiracial to Monoracial: The Formation of Mexican American Identities in the U.S. Southwest

Posted in Articles, Caribbean/Latin America, History, Media Archive, Mexico, Social Science, United States on 2022-04-21 16:51Z by Steven

From Multiracial to Monoracial: The Formation of Mexican American Identities in the U.S. Southwest

Volume 6, Issue 2 (2022) (Special Issue: Beyond the Frontiers of Mixedness: New Approaches to Intermarriage, Multiethnicity, and Multiracialism)
DOI: 10.3390/genealogy6020028
21 pages

G. Reginald Daniel, Professor of Sociology
University of California, Santa Barbara

The racialization of Mexican Americans in northern Mexico, that is, the U.S. Southwest, following the Anglo-Americanization during the second half of the nineteenth century, is an excellent case study of the historical formations of Anglo-American and Spanish American racial orders. Both racial orders were based on a hierarchy that privileged Whiteness and stigmatized Blackness. Yet Spanish America’s high levels of miscegenation resulted in ternary orders allowing for gradation in and fluidity within racial categories, in addition to the formation of multiracial identities, including those of individuals with African ancestry. Anglo-America was characterized by restrictions on miscegenation and more precise definitions of and restrictions on racial categories. This prohibited the formation of multiracial identities while buttressing a binary racial order that broadly necessitated single-race (monoracial) identification as either White or non-White, and more specifically, as White or Black, given their polar extremes in racial hierarchy. Within this order, hypodescent applies most stringently to those with African ancestry through the one-drop rule, which designates as Black all such individuals. This article examines monoracialization through historical processes of Mexican–American identity formations. Over the twentieth century, this shifted from White to Brown, but without any acknowledgment of African ancestry.

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Patchwork Freedoms: Law, Slavery, and Race beyond Cuba’s Plantations

Posted in Books, Caribbean/Latin America, History, Media Archive, Monographs, Slavery on 2022-04-21 14:58Z by Steven

Patchwork Freedoms: Law, Slavery, and Race beyond Cuba’s Plantations

Cambridge University Press
February 2022
320 pages
236 x 156 x 25 mm
Hardback ISBN: 9781108499545
Paperback ISBN: 9781108730808

Adriana Chira, Assistant Professor of Atlantic World History
Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

In nineteenth-century Santiago de Cuba, the island of Cuba’s radical cradle, Afro-descendant peasants forged freedom and devised their own formative path to emancipation. Drawing on understudied archives, this pathbreaking work unearths a new history of Black rural geography and popular legalism, and offers a new framework for thinking about nineteenth-century Black freedom. Santiago de Cuba’s Afro-descendant peasantries did not rely on liberal-abolitionist ideologies as a primary reference point in their struggle for rights. Instead, they negotiated their freedom and land piecemeal, through colonial legal frameworks that allowed for local custom and manumission. While gradually wearing down the institution of slavery through litigation and self-purchase, they reimagined colonial racial systems before Cuba’s intellectuals had their say. Long before residents of Cuba protested for national independence and island-wide emancipation in 1868, it was Santiago’s Afro-descendant peasants who, gradually and invisibly, laid the groundwork for emancipation.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • 1. Unenclosed people, unenclosed lands: Santiago de Cuba to 1800
  • 2. Foreign implants: The Saint-Domingue refugees and the limits of plantation development, 1791–1808
  • 3. Keeping people put: Enslaved families, policing, and the re-emergence of coffee planting, 1810s–1830s
  • 4. Manumission’s legalities: From need-based prerogatives to merit-based entitlements
  • 5. ‘A freedom with further bonds’: Free people of African descent, property ownership, and color status
  • 6. ‘Para levantar los negros y proclamar la República’: The beginnings of the Cuban wars of independence in Santiago de Cuba
  • Conclusion
  • Appendices
  • Bibliography
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