Gender, Race and Religion in the Colonization of the Americas

Posted in Anthologies, Books, Brazil, Canada, Caribbean/Latin America, History, Media Archive, Religion, United States, Women on 2011-03-01 04:45Z by Steven

Gender, Race and Religion in the Colonization of the Americas

Ashgate Publishing
July 2007
218 pages
219 x 153 mm
Hardback ISBN: 978-0-7546-5189-5

Edited by

Nora E. Jaffary, Associate Professor of History
Concordia University, Montreal, Canada

When Europe introduced mechanisms to control New World territories, resources and populations, women-whether African, indigenous, mixed race, or European-responded and participated in multiple ways. By adopting a comprehensive view of female agency, the essays in this collection reveal the varied implications of women’s experiences in colonialism in North and South America.

Although the Spanish American context receives particular attention here, the volume contrasts the context of both colonial Mexico and Peru to every other major geographic region that became a focus of European imperialism in the early modern period: the Caribbean, Brazil, English America, and New France. The chapters provide a coherent perspective on the comparative history of European colonialism in the Americas through their united treatment of four central themes: the gendered implications of life on colonial frontiers; non-European women’s relationships to Christian institutions; the implications of race-mixing; and social networks established by women of various ethnicities in the colonial context.

This volume adds a new dimension to current scholarship in Atlantic history through its emphasis on culture, gender and race, and through its explicit effort to link religion to the broader imperial framework of economic extraction and political domination.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction: Contextualizing race, gender, and religion in the New World Nora E. Jaffary
  • Part 1: Frontiers
    • 2. Women as go-betweens? Patterns in 16th-century Brazil Alida C. Metcalf
    • 3. Gender and violence: conquest, conversion, and culture on new Spain’s imperial frontier Bruce A. Erickson
    • 4. The very sinews of a new Colony: demographic determinism and the history of early Georgia women, 1732–52 Ben Marsh
  • Part 2: Female Religious
    • 5. The convent as missionary in 17th-century France Susan Broomhall
    • 6. ‘Although I am black, I am beautiful’: Juana Esperanza de San Alberto, Black Carmelite of Puebla Joan C. Bristol
    • 7. Andean women in religion: Beatas, ‘decency’, and the defense of honour in colonial Cuzco Kathryn Burns
  • Part 3: Race Mixing
    • 8. Incest, sexual virtue, and social mobility in late colonial Mexico Nora E. Jaffary
    • 9. ‘An empire founded on libertinage’: The mulâtresse and colonial anxiety in Saint Domingue
      Yvonne Fabella
    • 10. Mediating Mackinac: métis women’s cultural persistence in the Upper Great Lakes Bethany Fleming
  • Part 4: Networks
    • 11. Circuits of knowledge among women in early-17th-century Lima Nancy E. van Deusen
    • 12. Waters of faith, currents of freedom: gender, religion, and ethnicity in inter-imperial trade between Curaçao and Tierra Firme Linda M. Rupert
  • Afterword
    • Women in the Atlantic world
    • Patricia Seed
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Read the introduction here.

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Go-Betweens and the Colonization of Brazil: 1500-1600

Posted in Anthropology, Books, Brazil, Caribbean/Latin America, History, Media Archive, Monographs, Slavery on 2010-01-22 22:12Z by Steven

Go-Betweens and the Colonization of Brazil: 1500-1600

University of Texas Press
6 x 9 in.
391 pp., 20 figures, 11 maps, 2 tables
ISBN: 978-0-292-71276-8

Alida C. Metcalf, Harris Masterson, Jr. Professor of History
Rice University, Houston, Texas

Doña Marina (La Malinche)PocahontasSacagawea—their names live on in historical memory because these women bridged the indigenous American and European worlds, opening the way for the cultural encounters, collisions, and fusions that shaped the social and even physical landscape of the modern Americas. But these famous individuals were only a few of the many thousands of people who, intentionally or otherwise, served as “go-betweens” as Europeans explored and colonized the New World.

In this innovative history, Alida Metcalf thoroughly investigates the many roles played by go-betweens in the colonization of sixteenth-century Brazil. She finds that many individuals created physical links among Europe, Africa, and Brazil—explorers, traders, settlers, and slaves circulated goods, plants, animals, and diseases. Intercultural liaisons produced mixed-race children. At the cultural level, Jesuit priests and African slaves infused native Brazilian traditions with their own religious practices, while translators became influential go-betweens, negotiating the terms of trade, interaction, and exchange. Most powerful of all, as Metcalf shows, were those go-betweens who interpreted or represented new lands and peoples through writings, maps, religion, and the oral tradition. Metcalf’s convincing demonstration that colonization is always mediated by third parties has relevance far beyond the Brazilian case, even as it opens a revealing new window on the first century of Brazilian history.

Read an excerpt here.

Table of Contents

  • A Note on Spelling and Citation
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1. Go-betweens
  • 2. Encounter
  • 3. Possession
  • 4. Conversion
  • 5. Biology
  • 6. Slavery
  • 7. Resistance
  • 8. Power
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Index
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